With the onset of warm days, it’s time for hiking in the forest. There are many reasons for outings into nature, some go on vacation, others for mushrooms and berries. But, regardless of the reason, everyone can get lost in more often. Useful information on how not to get lost in the forest will help you avoid trouble and even save your life. This is especially true for children, who, due to their carelessness, may be the first to become captives in the forest.
What things are needed for a hike in the forest, so as not to get lost
Before you go camping, make a list of what you need. They will help you return safe and sound or help if you are still lost.
- Compass. The main device in any nature hikes. The ability to use it correctly guarantees safety in the forest. There is only one rule – the magnetic needle always points north, no matter where and from where you are going. Thus, it will be easier to navigate. For example, entering the forest in the east, you need to go back in the opposite direction, that is, to the west.
- Telephone. Thanks to advanced technologies, you can stay in touch wherever there is coverage. Make sure that your mobile phone is charged before going out into nature, but it is better to take a spare battery. There is one secret if the battery is dead: take it out of the phone and rub it on your pants (jacket, T-shirt, shirt, etc.). The main thing is that the battery warms up. Thus, its viability is extended by several minutes, which is quite enough to dial the rescue service.
- Ax and knife. Even if small in size, these items will greatly facilitate the process of obtaining firewood for a fire.
- Fresh water. No matter how long the trip is planned, there should always be a supply of water.
- Grocery stocks. This may be the most minimal set: canned food, dry noodles, crackers, etc.
- Matches, lighter, flint. For the production of fire, these are indispensable items. A bonfire will help you cook food, dry your clothes, and keep you warm. You can prevent the matchbox from getting wet by wrapping it in cling film or in a plastic bag. Coat each match with clear nail polish or wax. In very Spartan conditions, you can make a fire with the help of lenses for glasses. Hold the lens against the sun’s rays over dry leaves and they will light up.
- Clothing with long sleeves. It’s no secret that forest thickets are a favorite place for mosquitoes, ticks, snakes and other “reptiles”. The T-shirt will protect you not only from insects, but also from the insidious rays of the sun, wind and sand.
- Rope and paper clip (pin). With the help of these items, you can design a fishing rod and provide yourself with lunch or dinner. Bend the tip of the pin into a hook shape, put on a dug-out worm or other bait and wait for the bite. If you only have a paperclip at hand, sharpen one end of it on a stone and use it as a hook. Also, the rope is useful for tying branches for a hut or constructing a trap.
- Salt pepper. These seasonings will add flavor to caught fish or game. Pepper can be used to disinfect wounds.
- Bowler hat. Of course, when going for mushrooms, hardly anyone will take a bowler hat with them. But it is better to play it safe and put in a backpack, albeit a small, but such a necessary vessel. Instead of a kettle, a juice tetra pack will do. In it you can cook yushka or tea from birch chaga (a mushroom growing on a tree trunk closer to the crown) with lingonberry leaves.
- Raincoat or raincoat. In case of bad weather, you can take shelter and reduce the risk of getting wet and sick.
- Sun and insect protection. There are many living organisms in the forests, many of which will probably want to “eat” you. Repellents will protect against their encroachments.
- Whistle. More useful for kids. So they can signal their location if they get lost.
- Minimum supply of medicines. This includes painkillers, antiseptics, plasters, bandages, including elastic ones.
- A flashlight with spare batteries in case you have to stay in the woods overnight.
In order not to get lost in the forest – always take a compass
In addition, it will be useful to draw up a trip plan and mark it on the map. This will make it easier to navigate, and relatives to look for you in case of trouble.
What to do if you get lost in the forest, a reminder for children and adults
The first thing to do when lost in the woods is to calm down and focus. This will help you focus on the sounds, remember the details that you met on the way when you first entered the forest. Maybe there are landmarks around you that can help you find your way out. Immediately use a mobile phone, call relatives, friends to the rescue service. In general, the more people who know that you are in trouble, the better. When making calls, try to explain where to look for you as clearly and quickly as possible without wasting precious battery power. After that, you have two options: stay in place and wait for help, or look for a way out on your own. In the second option, follow certain instructions:
- try to walk in small steps so as not to walk in circles. This is due to the fact that a person’s right leg is slightly longer and recedes to the side. Walking in your usual way, there is a risk in time to return to the point from which you started;
- look for a body of water. Very often people build dwellings near water bodies. Help in finding moss and lichen. They grow on the wet side. Go downstream and, if you’re lucky, it will lead you to the people;
- don’t go deep into the thicket. If you see that the forest is thickening, go back, otherwise it will be more difficult to find you;
- it’s almost dusk, and you still haven’t been found. We’ll have to spend the night in the forest. To do this, find a calm place, collect brushwood and make a fire. If possible, you can build a shelter from the branches, the main thing is to do this before dark.
A lost baby must be sure that he will be found. Teach him to be on the spot and wait for help, be sure to respond if his name is called. You can knock on a tree trunk with a stick, such a sound travels further than a human voice, especially a child’s. Explain to your child in advance that you can’t drink from water bodies and eat unknown berries and mushrooms.
How not to get lost in the forest, orienteering rules
There are certain landmarks that help not to get lost in the forest. You can determine the direction of the world in various ways, and if there was neither a compass nor a navigator at hand, the signs of nature will help to do this. Try to remember which side the sun was on when you entered the forest, because there will be little sense from the side of the world without this information. Find out where north or south will help the following signs:
- anthills are located on the south side of trees and stumps;
- in the south, the crowns of trees are more magnificent, the bark is softer, and on the north side, on the contrary, it is coarser;
- coniferous resin accumulates more on the south side;
- in spring, the grass is thicker in the north, and in summer, on the contrary, in the south;
- forest berries are red on the south side, slightly greenish on the north;
- the shadows of the trees face north.
In order not to get lost in the forest, always pay attention to the crowns and bark of trees.
An ordinary stick will help you find out where north is. Stick it in the ground and see where it casts a shadow, there is north. When you first entered the forest, try to memorize the landmarks and, if possible, mark them with a marker. Remember that early in the morning, at 6-7 o’clock, the sun is in the east. Closer to 10 o’clock it will move to the southeast, and at noon, 12-13 o’clock to the south. In the evening, the luminary will be located in the west.
What not to do when lost in the forest
Nature has its own laws and man must know and respect them. Violation of the rules of behavior in the forest can cost health, and sometimes life. Beware of animal tracks. It is easy to distinguish them from the human one, the branches above the path will close at the level of your chest. Although such a path can lead to a source of drinking water, meeting a bear or a wild boar there will not please you.
Don’t keep moving if you walk that night will come soon. It is better to think about arranging a place to sleep and rest, so that in the morning you can continue your journey with renewed vigor.
Don’t drink unboiled water. Divide food supplies so that you have enough of them until they find you or you yourself get out of the forest. Try not to eat unfamiliar plants. You can distinguish edible from poisonous by the traces of bird droppings around or pecked berries. Poisonous include;
- belladonna fruits, in appearance resembling a large black cherry;
- hemlock speckled, these are small ovoid or round, laterally flattened fruits;
- wolfberry looks like bright red, pea-sized balls.
If you get lost in the forest, then in no case eat belladonna fruits
Poisonous mushrooms are the well-known fly agaric with a red or white hat, a pale grebe, which looks accordingly, russula vomit, etc. Only an experienced botanist or professional tourist can know all the names and appearance of inedible plants. It is better for an ordinary person to put a book indicating dangerous plants and animals in a backpack. The latter can also be harmful to health, for example, snakes, ticks, spiders, etc.
Having learned the simple rules of behavior for those lost in the forest, you will not find yourself in a difficult situation, and if this happens, you will not be at a loss and will be able to get out of it safe and sound.
Russia is a country of forests. About 45 percent of the territory of our country is occupied by forests. They are very beautiful and picturesque, and besides, they are rich in various berries and mushrooms. Every year, millions of people go hiking, not knowing how not to get lost in the forest. Some people are attracted by the gifts of nature, others – the opportunity to take a break from noisy cities, some are attracted by beauty, others are looking for extreme sensations. But regardless of the purpose of the trip, do not forget about the precautions. Every year, dozens of people get lost in the forests of our country. In order not to tell later the terrible stories of those lost in the forest, you must follow a few simple rules.
How to get into the woods
1. Before you go to the forest, you need to study the area in detail. Tell relatives and close friends about your plans, mention the place where you are going and when you plan to return. After all, if a person gets lost in the forest, rescuers should know in which area to look.
2. Collect everything you need. The main thing is to have a fully charged phone, matches in waterproof packaging, a knife, you should also take a compass and a flashlight with you. Then the question of how not to get lost in the forest will not be so acute. Be sure to bring drinking water. It is advisable to take a small supply of food. It is better if they are not heavy, but high-calorie, such as nuts, chocolate or a pack of cookies. Bring medical supplies (eg, band-aids, bandages, pain relievers) if possible.
3. Be sure to choose the right clothes for the hike. It should be comfortable and waterproof. In the forest there is a danger of being bitten by a tick, so it is necessary that the jacket be long-sleeved, and the legs of the trousers should be tucked into boots. Don’t forget the headdress. It is better if the clothes are light-colored, this will help to detect the tick faster. It is also worth buying repellents that repel ticks and other insects. It is only worth remembering that they can only be applied to clothing and in no case to the skin, as these products can cause allergic reactions.
Gathering correctly is half the battle, you should also behave correctly in the forest and know what to do if you get lost.
How to behave in the forest?
- You should not go into the forest alone, it is always more fun in the company, and the chance of getting lost is lower.
- It is better to visit the forest in the morning and try not to linger until dark.
Going to the forest, you often forget about the time. Picking mushrooms or berries can be so exciting that at some point you don’t understand where you are and where to go next. A small memo to those who get lost in the forest will help you find a way out without panic. Next, we will try to highlight all the important points.
Lost in the forest, what to do?
Cellular and emergency call
Try calling people you’ve been hiking with, or relatives who stayed at home but know about your trip to the woods. Try not to say a lot of unnecessary words and turn off the phone after the conversation is over so that the battery does not run out. If there is no telephone network, you need to call 112, the call is always available. Then there are several options for behavior – either stay where you are and wait until they find you, or look for your own way.
Waiting for help
If you decide to stay where you are, it’s best to build a fire. It will help not to freeze, and it is easy to notice smoke from the air. It is better to build a fire in an open meadow. To make the smoke stronger, it is worth throwing damp branches or something plastic into the flame. You can climb a tree, tie something bright to the top and periodically shake the tree. If you hear any sounds, shout back. This will help search engines find you faster, and scare away wild animals. Remember that finding those lost in the forest is not an easy task, it is important to mark your location by any means. If you understand that help is still far away and it is worth taking care of yourself, then you need to go looking for civilization.
Orientation on the ground
As children, we were often taught how to navigate the terrain and how not to get lost in the forest. It was said that moss usually grows on the north side of the trees, anthills are located on the south. But nature is changeable, and you should not rely on these signs, it is better to be guided by objective data. Your senses will help in your search.
- Take a closer look. There may be footprints of human shoes on the ground. Once you figure out the direction of the tracks, follow them. If you see power lines, follow them.
- Listen. Go in the direction of the sound of water or the noise of cars. Having reached the river, it is better to move along it with the flow. Rivers usually flow into large bodies of water, and there is a chance to meet people.
- Smell it. If you feel the smoke of a fire, then you need to go against the wind for the smell.
Very often a person is knocked off the right direction by walking in a circle. This phenomenon is quite simple. The step size of the right foot is different from the left, this leads to the fact that the person, as it were, “rakes” with one foot. Most often, a person unconsciously turns to the left. As a result, if you go “straight” without any reference points, you can deviate significantly from the course.
Various dangers can lurk in the forest, including wild animals. They are mostly afraid of humans and will not attack first unless they are teased. When meeting with a wild animal, you must try to get to a safe distance. If the animal is interested in you, you need to start making noise – screaming, knocking, jumping and waving your arms. If a wild boar is encountered on the way, then it is better to scare him either from a large stone or from a tree, since wild boars are very unpredictable and can rush forward out of fear. The main thing is not to run away from the animals, otherwise, obeying their instincts, they will rush after you. It is much more dangerous to meet a wolf on your way. You don’t need to make noise with him, on the contrary, you need to speak loudly and calmly, stepping back.
The question often comes up: “If you get lost in the forest, what should you do first?” We have already talked about the designation of the place. Separately, you need to think about nutrition. There are many berries and mushrooms in our forests. Of course, you can eat berries, but you don’t really need to rely on them, you won’t be able to eat a lot of them, and in small quantities they are not very nutritious. If you know about mushrooms, you should collect them. Otherwise, it’s better not to risk it. Mushrooms are best boiled in water twice. If you don’t have a bowler hat with you, don’t be upset, you can get by with a tin can.
Hazelnuts are very nutritious. If you find a hazel, collect nuts with you in reserve. You can eat tree bark and burdock root, which tastes like potatoes.
In the event that the search is delayed, and the time is approaching night, it is worth thinking about an overnight stay. It is better to choose a dry place in an open area near the water. It is necessary to collect as many dry branches as possible for making a fire so that it burns out all night. This will provide the necessary warmth and scare away predators. Well, if there is a plastic bag, you can put it on yourself. For an overnight stay, it is worth picking up spruce branches, they retain heat better. You can hide with dry leaves. You need to go to bed by the fire, stretching out along it.
Falling asleep in a stressful situation is, of course, difficult. You need to fall asleep with the thought that in a few hours it will be light again, and the chances of salvation will increase. Do not despair, give in to panic, lose hope for a return. The main condition for salvation is the desire to survive!
- Nadezhda Sokolova (6)
- TALES OF ALEXANDER MASKAYEV (5)
- designer doll (56)
- English (162)
- jewelry (16)
- beads (167)
- coffee bouquets (29)
- in the animal world (59)
- felting (49)
- mittens (80)
- collars (41)
- embroidery (328)
- knitting for children (1073)
- christening (59)
- knitting (2171)
- Bruges lace (56)
- CARDIGAN (64)
- knitting needles (260)
- crochet patterns (40)
- Knitted flowers (38)
- decoupage (63)
- for granddaughter (170)
- for home (784)
- for men (51)
- dragons (200)
- jacquard (41)
- ZhZL (40)
- magazines (88)
- blanks (462)
- health (698)
- toys (1323)
- mice (7)
- monkey (4)
- MOUSE (3)
- dogs (24)
- interesting (195)
- interior (41)
- Irish lace (180)
- minced meat (67)
- cardigan (0)
- quilling (4)
- mats (150)
- comp detail (147)
- catmania (157)
- Beauty (468)
- pantyhose dolls (100)
- DIY dolls (107)
- DOLLS (60)
- cooking (2326)
- modeling (287)
- Horses. (74)
- macrame (7)
- masters (138)
- my works (25)
- my flowers (50)
- music (190)
- soap (4)
- our world in pictures (7)
- New Year Christmas. (536)
- socks (25)
- monkey (15)
- sheep (40)
- vegetable garden (185)
- origami (67)
- EASTER (316)
- PAPE ART (36)
- rooster (32)
- blankets (436)
- crafts (2910)
- papier mache (50)
- jewelry boxes (10)
- newspaper weaving (61)
- Jute filigree (39)
- suitcases (3)
- pillows (128)
- Congratulations (65)
- useful advice (131)
- travel (31)
- patchwork (200)
- frames (37)
- painting (405)
- needlework (194)
- guilloche (2)
- frivolite (2)
- Romanian lace (18)
- napkins, tablecloths (608)
- links (63)
- poems (216)
- bags (227)
- slippers (413)
- tops, blouses (95)
- papier torsion (6)
- dot painting (47)
- smile (48)
- fillet knitting (436)
- photoshop (71)
- fantasy (57)
- wanty (624)
- GIFTS (36)
- artists (135)
- lacquer miniature (2)
- Flowers (158)
- flowers (93)
- shawls (815)
- scarves (61)
- hats (570)
- fur knitting (11)
- hats (80)
- sewing (119)
- skirts (138)
– I am a photographer
clothes for dolls.
– Diary search
– Subscription by e-mail
Sunday, September 22, 2013 7:01 pm + to quote pad
How not to get lost in the forest. Behavior rules
How not to get lost in the forest. memo
Before going out into the forest, warn your relatives where you are going.
If you are driving into the forest, consider whether there is enough gasoline to drive there and back.
Always keep a knife, matches in a dry box and a watch in your pocket, not in your bag, but in your pocket – they will help you not to panic and navigate like a compass.
Dress brightly – in camouflage you may not be found even from three meters, preferably red, red, yellow, white jackets, it is good to stick reflective strips or drawings.
Try not to go far from a familiar route, do not “cut a corner” in unfamiliar terrain, especially in a swamp.
If your relative is lost, call rescuers immediately. Often, independent searches lead only to trampling down the traces by which it was possible to find a person.
If you are trying, for example, to shout or reach out (with a car signal) to a lost person, wait for him in one place for a long time. Sometimes found people say that they went to the signal, but when they got out, they found that the car had just left without waiting for them even fifteen minutes. But it is rather difficult to run out of the forest quickly.
We must not forget that going to the forest is a strong physical activity that is unusual for urban residents. Therefore, keep in mind that it can become bad in the forest. If you have any other chronic diseases, they can worsen, so you can’t go to the forest without the necessary medicines. And, of course, you need to have at least a minimum supply of water with you so that you can drink medicine if necessary.
Useful Landmark Tips
1. Helps to determine the smell. If you smell the smoke, you need to go against the wind.
2. If there are no sound landmarks, then it is best to “go out on the water” (the stream will definitely lead to the river, the river – to the people. You need to go downstream).
3. You can climb a tree and see if the chimneys of houses, factories, bell towers or towers stick out anywhere.
4. Pay attention to the forest paths trodden by man.
5. If you place the clock in a horizontal plane and point the hour hand at the sun, the bisector between the hour hand and the number “12” will indicate the direction to the south.
Landmark for the location of plants
– trees, stumps and fallen trunks rot more on the north side;
– the dew that fell in the morning lasts longer from the north;
– moss on stumps is located on the north side; bark of birch and pine on the north side is darker;
– the birch has a smooth, white, clean bark on the south side;
– on fresh stumps, growth rings are thinner from the north. Resin on the trunks of pines, firs, cedars protrudes more abundantly from the south side.
What to do if you get lost in the forest?
In order to stay alive, being alone in the forest, you need elementary initial knowledge and a great desire to find a way out of the situation. Experts recommend that the lost person, first of all, hug the tree tightly and calm down.
Do not panic, stop and think – where did you come from, do you hear screams, noise of cars, barking dogs. train (for 10 km). Rooftop chimneys can be seen 3 km away, factory chimneys 6 km away, bell towers and towers 15 km away. In the absence of suitable landmarks, it is best to “get out on the water” and move downstream. The stream will definitely lead to the river, the river – to the people.
If possible, immediately contact the specialists of the Unified Rescue Service by phone: 112 or 01 (the call is free).
If you know for sure that they will be looking for you – stay where you are, build a fire, sing songs – it is easy to find a person by smoke and voice.
If you are going to spend the night, make a bed of spruce branches, it is advisable to keep the fire going all night – for this, throw a couple of thick branches there.
If you are looking for a way yourself – try not to wind, navigate by the sun, it’s good if you managed to get to a power line, railway, gas pipeline, river – walking along these objects, you will always go out to people, even if not where you expected.
You can give sound signals by hitting a stick against trees, the sound from them diverges far through the forest.
If you need to move, you can navigate to the cardinal points even without a compass. So, the bark of birch and pine on the north side is darker than on the south, and tree trunks, stones, rock ledges are densely covered with moss and lichens. Resin drops on the trunks of coniferous trees stand out from the north side less abundantly than from the south. All these signs are clearly expressed in a single tree in a clearing or edge.
Don’t try to take shortcuts. Don’t panic if you find yourself starting to circle. This is a common occurrence. It’s called the “right leg focus”. One step is always shorter than the other. No matter how hard you try to go straight, you will definitely be carried to the side. In the mountains, the loop will be shorter, on the plain – longer. Best of all, having made one circle, do not try to outwit fate and make a second, third. To maintain the intended direction, it is necessary to choose a well-marked landmark every 100- of the route. This is especially important if the path is blocked by a blockage or thick bushes, which force you to deviate from the direct direction.
The most insidious obstacles in the taiga are swamps and bogs. Having fallen into a swamp, you do not need to panic, make sudden movements. It is necessary to carefully, leaning on a pole lying across, take a horizontal position, then try to get the reeds, grass with your hands and, pulling yourself up, crawl away from the dangerous place. If several people move through the swamp, you need to stay close to each other in order to be able to help a comrade at any moment.
If it is necessary to organize temporary parking, this must be done in a dry place. Build a shelter from improvised materials, build a fire, replenish food from nature’s pantry and wait for help to arrive. It is best to be located near a stream or stream, in an open area, so that you always have a supply of water on hand. In addition, a cool breeze that constantly blows at night will be a better defense against the attack of hordes of midges than smoky fires. A canopy, a hut, a dugout can serve as a temporary shelter. In the warm season, you can limit yourself to building a simple canopy.
Make yourself visible. First of all, it is necessary to find an open place, preferably on a hill, to build three high (three meters) crosses from spruce branches in the nearest clearing. If you have matches, you can light three fires, or make three deep grooves in the ground with your heel, or pile three stone piles near the path, since rescuers usually follow it. In a word, to install signs that do not exist in ordinary nature, and which can be seen from a helicopter. You can, for example, hang decorations from garbage (bottles, cans, bags of chips, etc.) on the Christmas tree.
Before making a fire, all measures should be taken to prevent a forest fire. This is especially important during dry, hot seasons. A place for a fire is chosen away from coniferous, and especially withered trees. Thoroughly clean the space for a meter and a half around from dry grass, moss and shrubs. If the soil is peaty, then, so that the fire does not penetrate the grass cover and cause the peat to ignite, a “pillow” of sand or earth is poured. In winter, with a high snow cover, the snow is carefully trampled down, and then a platform is built from several tree trunks.
Use dried trees and branches as fuel. In wet weather, dry fuel can be found under the trunks of fallen trees. Dry grasses can be used as fuel, and sometimes even coal, or peat, which can be found on the surface of the soil. Some plants can also be used, but in no case are poisonous. To make a fire, you can use something that quickly ignites, for example, small blocks of dry wood, fir cones, tree bark, twigs, dried spruce needles, herbs. Even in the rain, the resin from fir cones or dry stumps will quickly catch fire. Dry birch bark also contains resinous substances that quickly catch fire. To kindle a fire, dry twigs are used, which are planed so that the chips remain on them in the form of a “collar”. Thin chips are laid on top, split dry bark (preferably birch), dried moss. Little by little fuel is added to the fire. As the flame increases, larger branches can be laid. They must be laid one at a time, loosely, to ensure good air access. If you forget about it, even a hot burning fire can “suffocate”. Protect the fire from the wind with a shield (windbreaker) or a reflector that will direct the heat in the desired direction. Maintain the fire properly. Use freshly cut logs or the end of a thick, rotten log to keep the fire burning slowly. Protect the red lights from the wind. Cover them with ashes and a layer of soil on top. Thus, it will be easier for you to maintain the fire than to start it again. They must be laid one at a time, loosely, to ensure good air access. If you forget about it, even a hot burning fire can “suffocate”. Protect the fire from the wind with a shield (windbreaker) or a reflector that will direct the heat in the desired direction. Maintain the fire properly. Use freshly cut logs or the end of a thick, rotten log to keep the fire burning slowly. Protect the red lights from the wind. Cover them with ashes and a layer of soil on top. Thus, it will be easier for you to maintain the fire than to start it again. They must be laid one at a time, loosely, to ensure good air access. If you forget about it, even a hot burning fire can “suffocate”. Protect the fire from the wind with a shield (windbreaker) or a reflector that will direct the heat in the desired direction. Maintain the fire properly. Use freshly cut logs or the end of a thick, rotten log to keep the fire burning slowly. Protect the red lights from the wind. Cover them with ashes and a layer of soil on top. Thus, it will be easier for you to maintain the fire than to start it again. Use freshly cut logs or the end of a thick, rotten log to keep the fire burning slowly. Protect the red lights from the wind. Cover them with ashes and a layer of soil on top. Thus, it will be easier for you to maintain the fire than to start it again. Use freshly cut logs or the end of a thick, rotten log to keep the fire burning slowly. Protect the red lights from the wind. Cover them with ashes and a layer of soil on top. Thus, it will be easier for you to maintain the fire than to start it again.
A small fire is easier to build and control than a large one. A few small fires lit around you in cold weather will provide more heat than a large fire.
For cooking and drying clothes, the “hut” fire is most convenient, giving a large, even flame, or “starry” of 5-8 star-shaped dry trunks. They are set on fire in the center and shifted as they burn. For heating during an overnight stay or in cold weather, 3-4 thinner stems are fanned onto a thick trunk. Such a fire is called taiga. For heating for a long time they use a fire Node. Two dry trunks are laid one on top of the other and fixed at the ends on both sides with stakes. Wedges are inserted between the trunks and kindling is laid in the clearance. As the wood burns, the ashes and ashes are cleaned from time to time.
Leaving the parking lot, smoldering coals must be carefully extinguished by filling them with water or throwing earth.
Building a fire without matches
Before you try to start a fire without matches, prepare some dry flammable materials. Then shelter them from wind and moisture. Good substances can be rot, patches of clothing, rope or twine, wood shavings and sawdust, bird feathers, woolly villi of plants, and others.
A camera lens, a convex lens from binoculars or a telescope, and finally a mirror can be used to focus the sun’s rays on flammable substances.
In the absence of matches, there is a way to quickly light dry tinder. A hard piece of stone can serve as flint. Hold the flint as close to the tinder as possible and strike it against a steel knife blade or some small piece of steel. Hit so that the sparks hit the center of the tinder.
The lack of water during the day adversely affects the morale of a person, reduces his combat effectiveness, strong-willed qualities, and causes rapid fatigue. With limited water supplies, the body loses a lot of fluid with sweat and becomes dehydrated, it is very important to reduce sweating. This can be achieved by protecting yourself from direct solar radiation with the help of a simple sunshade, limiting physical activity during the hot part of the day, moisturizing clothes, etc.
1. Rain water. To collect rainwater, dig a hole and line it with large leaves so that the collected water does not soak into the ground.
2. Dew. When it rains, tie a cloth around a tree. Water flowing along the trunk will linger and drip into a container placed below.
3. Water from natural sources. Before drinking water from a river, stream, etc., it must (if possible) be boiled.
4. All plants constantly evaporate at least a small amount of water, it can be caught with an ordinary polyethylene bag. The bag is put on a bush, a tree branch and tied at the base. The water evaporated by the plant settles in the form of droplets on the inner surface of the polyethylene, which accumulate at the bottom of the bag. In an hour, depending on the size of the plant, you can collect up to 50-80 ml of water. It is important that this method practically does not require any physical effort.
The rest of the products must be left in the forest – the forest inhabitants will be grateful to you if they are not nearby, a natural process of decomposition will occur. Of course, you should not scatter food leftovers in an even layer across the parking lot – it is better to carefully fold the garbage under a bush or in another inconspicuous place. If there is a lot of waste, then you should dig a hole specifically for food waste, and on the last day, fill it with earth, cover it with turf.
All non-food waste, including that which cannot be burned in a fire (polyethylene, rubber, plastic bottles, iron cans, glass), do not be too lazy to take it out of the forest to the nearest container. Tin cans can be left in the woods if they are burned to the point where they break easily.
Highly hazardous waste – batteries / accumulators – must not be thrown away. The only correct way to dispose of them is to hand them over to a collection and processing point.
Do not break glass bottles! You yourself, other people, forest animals can get hurt, in hot summer the glass actually becomes a magnifying glass and can cause a fire.
Do not leave useless things in parking lots – old sneakers or bent arches from your tent are unlikely to be needed by anyone and will still become completely unmarketable in a matter of days. No one will clean up the garbage in the forest except you, do not forget that the janitors remained in the city. Stock up on bags or boxes that are suitable for the role of a temporary trash can. And donate recyclables – this is an ideal option. Look at the map for recycling points.