What are the partitions in the apartment made of? To answer this question, you should first familiarize yourself with the existing materials and the conditions for their use. Today, the most diverse material is used for partitions in an apartment or residential building. Moreover, their type and overall dimensions depend on the purpose of the separated space. But before getting acquainted with the types of partitions, you should understand the very concept of dividing a room or zoning it.
Partitions in the apartment
What is better to make an interior partition from, so that the room turns out to be isolated from other rooms? Here it is better to use a denser or durable material that has high sound insulation performance. Such partitions in apartments are most often installed in order to create a separate room for children or a study. Here, not only soundproofing is important, but also the vibration resistance of the walls. What is an alternative to drywall partitions? Alternatively, the inner wall can be made of cheaper expanded clay blocks, gypsum blocks and foam blocks.
Internal partitions in the apartment are symbolic, and most often just decoration of the room. They only visually divide the room into two or more specific zones. Such interior partitions in an apartment are most often installed, for example, in the living room to separate the dining room and the recreation area; in the large bedroom, you can thus separate the working area (study) from the main area.
Construction of insulated walls
Let’s take a closer look at the methods of erecting insulated walls, for example, internal partitions made of foam blocks or expanded clay blocks in order to obtain a secluded space. But first of all, it should be noted that, according to generally accepted standards, blind partitions can only be installed in rooms with several sources of natural light, that is, in which there are two or more windows. If the partition will be erected in other places, then permission from the BTI and a new project will be required. Therefore, the first thing we consider is the conditions for installing partitions in an apartment.
Conditions for installing partitions in an apartment
It is forbidden to make capital partitions in the following cases:
- in order to increase the area of \u200b\u200bthe kitchen, bathroom or toilet at the expense of living space;
- in the same way, reduce the kitchen or bathroom in order to increase living space;
- equip a sanitary unit above the kitchen of the neighbors below;
- carry out the transfer of the kitchen to the living area;
- if there is a gas stove, it is forbidden to combine the kitchen and living quarters;
- divide the living space into two or more with one source of natural light (windows).
In addition to the places for installing partitions, you should also take into account some technical aspects that will determine what it is better to make interior partitions from. These include the following:
- it is forbidden to demolish partitions in order to transfer them, if they are load-bearing;
- installation of heavy partitions should be carried out only on a solid foundation (reinforced concrete monolithic, brick or block, with its density not less than D600, wall); in other cases, walls can be laid from foam blocks 10 cm thick or made using frame technology from drywall.
The table below compares several materials according to their physical characteristics, which are decisive when choosing a particular type.
|Specifications||Gas blocks||Foam blocks||Clay blocks||Brick|
The table shows that the warmest material is gas or gas silicate blocks for partitions in an apartment, but at the same time it has less strength due to its high porosity. The most durable material is brick, but due to the high density of the material, its weight is very large: 1 m 2 of masonry weighs 250 kg. In comparison with gas blocks, the weight of one element is from 5 to 10 kg with dimensions of 600x300x100 mm, they are more than 4 times heavier and, therefore, will create a greater load on the floors. As for soundproofing characteristics, gas blocks and foam blocks have better insulating properties due to the presence of many gas bubbles. But also from the table you can see how foam concrete differs from aerated concrete, the pros and cons of both types are obvious.
Types of materials for partitions
For the construction of partitions in rooms with high humidity, it is necessary to use a material with a low moisture absorption coefficient. This has a brick or special moisture-resistant green gypsum blocks. At the same time, it is better to use hollow material for partitions, since it has at least 30% less weight, but has the same strength.
Brickwork as a partition has several advantages:
- high strength and load capacity;
- bricks can be used to build walls of any curvilinear shape;
- the material is resistant to humid environments and fungal formations; due to poor moisture absorption, it does not form at all.
But there are also disadvantages:
- high weight of the partition;
- high curvature of the surface after laying, which will require additional plastering, but in the case of tile installation, this does not play a special role;
- high labor intensity of work;
- lots of associated dirt.
Masonry brick calculator
Partitions from gas blocks and foam blocks
What is the difference between aerated concrete and foam concrete? These materials are quite similar to each other, but at the same time they have a number of differences, which are as follows:
- Mode of production. Aerated concrete blocks are made by baking in autoclaves, unlike foam blocks, which harden under normal conditions and can be made directly at the construction site.
- Chemical composition. They contain in their composition a greater amount of cement than in the first version, which makes them stronger and more moisture resistant.
- Foam blocks are less susceptible to processing due to the greater proportion of cement.
Partition of foam concrete
Given all of the above, we can confidently answer the question of what is stronger – a foam block or a gas block. Naturally foam block, but it has a lower thermal insulation coefficient. In particular, for the construction of partitions in an apartment, this does not play a big role.
If the base does not allow the construction of massive and very heavy interior walls, then an interior partition made of foam blocks would be an excellent option. But at the same time, it must always be faced without gaps using tiles, plaster and other means in the case of construction in rooms with high humidity.
Today on sale there is a wide variety of sizes of foam blocks and gas blocks for construction. But for the construction of partitions there are so-called partition blocks. Their sizes can be:
The interroom partition from blocks has a number of advantages:
- Installation of partitions from foam blocks is carried out quite quickly due to the small weight of each block and its impressive size.
- High rates of heat and sound insulation.
- Good fire resistance.
- High indicators of the geometry of the finished masonry.
- Gas and foam blocks can be easily processed with any tools (chisel, hand saw, drill), but it is recommended to use a tool specially designed for this. The hacksaw should have a thick blade and be studded with large double teeth.
- When laying partitions from foam blocks, doorways up to 80 cm wide can be made without the use of metal lintels, but only with the use of an adhesive mixture. Learn more about building a wall of foam block.
But just like with any other construction, there are some disadvantages due to the following:
- Gas and foam blocks have deviations in geometric dimensions up to 2 mm, which indicates the need to level the wall with plaster mixtures.
- To exclude the formation of fungus in damp and damp rooms, partitions must be treated with antiseptic protective agents. It must be 100% finished with plaster mixes.
- The surface is less durable than brickwork.
Of no less interest are tongue-and-groove blocks or slabs for partitions in an apartment. This new material, which is based on gypsum, plasticizer and other hydrophobic additives to improve water resistance, has excellent geometric parameters. Also, each plate has a groove and a protrusion (ridge) in its structure to ensure perfect docking of the components among themselves, forming a single flat surface.
Gypsum blocks as a building masonry material have a number of advantages:
- not combustible, and does not deform when exposed to fire for a long time;
- they have excellent geometric parameters, unlike foam block partitions, which indicates a perfectly flat surface and no need for plaster;
- easy to process with any tools;
- have excellent soundproofing and heat-insulating properties;
- have a relatively small weight, approximately equal in volume to a gas block;
- on sale there are plates with voids, which without much difficulty allows you to make the wiring of all necessary communications;
- the light weight of the plates and the large geometric dimensions of each block contribute to the rapid construction of walls and partitions;
- the presence of a groove and a ridge makes the wall stronger than the laying of an interior partition made of foam blocks.
Like any other material, gypsum tongue-and-groove plates have disadvantages:
- comparatively low strength of the material;
- high water absorption, up to destruction – for the construction of partitions in rooms with high humidity, it is necessary to use plates with special additives, they have a different green color than usual;
- only special gypsum glue should be used for the installation of plates.
Partitions from expanded clay concrete blocks
Expanded clay blocks for interior partitions are also a good option, because they have good strength, sound and heat insulation, and most importantly, low cost. But one should take into account the fact that a more durable material has less heat retention properties. For the construction of partitions in the apartment, it is enough to use elements with large expanded clay granules. Expanded clay blocks also have pros and cons, which are described below:
- the most fragile expanded clay concrete blocks have a moisture permeability coefficient much less than foam blocks, and is only 50% versus 85%;
- a less durable expanded clay concrete block has a greater strength compared to a foam block, the figure is almost twice;
- laying of expanded clay blocks can be carried out directly on a reinforced concrete base in an apartment, while gypsum or gas blocks should be mounted on a substrate to compensate for the temperature coefficient;
- these blocks are not prone to shrinkage, which indicates the preservation of ideal geometry after completion of work for a long time;
- on sale there are a variety of sizes and shapes of expanded clay blocks, which allows you to build structures that are complex in shape.
There are no ideal materials, so this one has some drawbacks. The block, due to the presence of a large number of fired clay granules, is difficult to process with conventional tools, so you need to purchase discs specially designed for concrete.
How to choose the right material, what are the interior partitions, what is better to do, the advantages, disadvantages of various options, how to build a good, durable partition at no extra cost – these issues are discussed in this article.
In some cases, the walls must be strong enough, be able to withstand the weight of objects suspended on them (sometimes heavy), and must have good sound insulation. There are many solutions for the construction of internal partitions
- concrete blocks,
- ceramic materials (ordinary, hollow brick),
- silicate blocks,
- expanded clay blocks,
- lightweight concrete blocks.
Clay hollow brick is less durable than clinker. Below we will talk about the most common technologies used in construction, which partitions are better in an apartment, what is cheaper, more durable to build bulkheads, what properties different materials have.
A popular traditional material for the construction of partitions is brick. There are several types of brick walls.
- brick has better sound insulation;
- high strength;
- heavy objects can be hung on walls made of solid bricks, clinker, a similar situation is in the case of hollow bricks, but in this case reinforced fasteners should be used to hang heavy objects, as they may end up in voids;
- brick structures are highly resistant to mechanical damage.
- Walls made of solid, hollow bricks, clinker are very heavy, significantly increasing the load on the floor.
- Usually bricks are used (full, hollow, clinker) with dimensions of 25 x 12 x 6.5 cm. The construction of the inner wall is laborious: 60 bricks per 1 m² of wall, a large amount of mortar.
- The brick has large deviations in dimensions, uneven surfaces. After its laying, plastering of the wall will be required, the thickness of the plaster layer is at least 1.0-1.5 cm, which increases the cost and duration of construction.
Due to their high weight, brick partitions are placed on a reinforced floor, for example on properly designed reinforced concrete beams supported by load-bearing walls. You should be careful when changing the location of the walls on the upper floors. When making changes, be sure to consult with designers, specialists in the construction industry.
Which brick is better? The use of hollow bricks can reduce the weight of the partition by 20-30%. However, a hollow brick wall has less soundproofing properties than a conventional brick wall.
Finishing work can be accelerated if, instead of plastering, finish with plasterboard panels. Drywall does not need to be plastered, it is enough to apply putty before painting, wallpapering.
Clinker brick partitions are not plastered, this solution is expensive due to high prices for good quality clinker.
Aerated concrete – a common material, like drywall, is characterized by a fairly low cost of construction.
This building material with a thickness of 11.5 cm is often used for the construction of walls.
- relatively inexpensive, cheaper than solid, hollow bricks;
- allows for a faster erection of the structure than in the case of standard brick walls, due to the larger size (50 x 20 x 11.5 cm), easy installation;
- such brick walls provide good acoustic parameters indoors;
- allows you to hang heavy objects, special spring pins should be used.
Ceramic brick walls are finished in different ways:
- plaster with plaster 1.0-1.5 cm thick;
- finished with drywall.
The walls can be realized with concrete blocks or ceramic materials such as solid bricks, hollow bricks, clinker. Clay bricks are less durable than clinker. There are several interesting alternatives to these materials – silicate blocks for interior walls in an apartment, blocks of expanded clay, lightweight concrete.
Wall of luxfers or glass blocks
Sometimes glass blocks (luxspheres) are used, creating certain stylizations. Luxspheres – an alternative to drywall constructions, gives interesting decorative effects. This material is successfully used as a wall between the kitchen and the living room, other rooms, if it fits the interior styling.
Luxspheres in the interior, photo
Aerated concrete blocks
Aerated concrete blocks are a popular material for building walls.
Advantages of aerated concrete:
- ease of cutting, forming almost any surface;
- they can quickly drill grooves for wiring.
- on the walls it is relatively easy to fix any defects, chips;
- a standard aerated concrete block has dimensions of 60 x 20 x 11.5 cm, allowing you to quickly build walls, provides a lower consumption of mortar compared to brick;
- unlike bricks, concrete blocks are produced with a low dimensional deviation, so thin masonry joints can be applied, a thinner layer of plaster (0.8-1.0 cm) can be applied.
- much worse sound insulation than any kind of brick, you need to consider the purpose of the room;
- aerated concrete has a relatively low strength, so you need to carefully hang heavy objects;
- cellular concrete walls are less resistant to mechanical damage,
- due to poor sound insulation, a thicker layer of plaster (1.5 cm) is recommended for aerated concrete walls in residential premises, which increases the ability to absorb sound. There are also special drywall boards with an extra layer of soundproofing, but this greatly increases the overall cost of building a wall.
Expanded clay blocks
Expanded clay blocks are an interesting alternative for those who like to use concrete blocks.
- high strength will allow you to hang heavy objects (but less durable than brick);
- better absorb sound;
- the cost of a claydite-concrete wall is lower than the cost of a partition made of conventional concrete blocks.
Expanded clay blocks are placed on a standard solution, finished:
- ordinary gypsum plaster;
- clay (environmental plaster).
Silicate blocks are:
- hollow, having special grooves, for example, for laying cables, which allows you not to make grooves in the wall.
- excellent acoustic performance – blocks with a thickness of 8 cm are characterized by high standards of sound insulation, providing acoustic comfort;
- silicate blocks are made with high precision, do not require a large thickness of plaster – usually a plaster thickness of 0.5-0.8 cm is required;
- silicates are characterized by high strength, resistance to heavy weight – you can easily hang heavy objects on them without damaging the wall;
- the cost of a silicate block partition is comparable to the cost of a clay brick partition; but bricks need to be plastered, silicate walls can be left unplastered, which reduces the cost.
What interior partition will be a compromise in terms of cost savings, sufficient strength, sound insulation? These are drywall walls.
Drywall interior partitions
Modern wall partitions between rooms are often made of plasterboard. There are waterproof panels used as partitions in bathrooms. The walls are two plasterboard surfaces mounted on special metal profiles. Between them, a filler of mineral wool can be located. The total thickness of such a wall is usually 12 cm.
Advantages of drywall partitions:
- have an average ability to absorb sound;
- contribute to a good microclimate in the room, due to the ability of gypsum to absorb and release moisture contained in the air;
- do not require plastering, enough putty;
- construction speed.
- Heavy objects on drywall structures should be placed carefully, they are not as strong as brick walls – hanging heavy objects without special installation is not recommended. Usually, if there is a need to hang a heavy object, fasteners are fixed on a metal profile located inside the partition. After finishing, it is not always possible to determine exactly where the profile components are located, so fasteners should be planned and marked in advance.
- A significant drawback of frame structures is low resistance to shock and damage.
- When using drywall in bathrooms, an extra layer of moisture insulation is recommended, even on waterproof boards.
Drywall frame structures are a cost-effective, quickly erected solution. If good quality mineral wool is used for the construction, decent sound insulation can be achieved. Unfortunately, even the best materials will not give such performance as bricks, hollow concrete blocks, silicates.
What to choose?
This question worries many at the stage of project planning, construction budget or home renovation. We examined the most popular options for the implementation of interior partitions.
- Under normal conditions, it is recommended to make partitions from hollow ceramic, silicate bricks. Both solutions provide high insulation parameters and are relatively quickly erected. In the case of high-quality silicates, it is possible not to plaster the surface, which leads to a reduction in construction costs.
- If you want to achieve maximum sound insulation, the walls are made of solid bricks. Such a decision must be made at the design stage in order to properly reinforce the floor under the partition.
- Concrete blocks, expanded clay give a limited possibility of hanging heavy objects.
- The choice of expensive solutions – clinker, glass blocks will give good acoustic properties, high strength, but the price is quite high.
Partitions are erected from inexpensive solid building (ordinary) bricks of grade not lower than M100 with a standard size (250 × 120 × 65 mm). A stable brick partition should have a thickness of half a brick (150-170 mm, together with a layer of plaster with a rough finish). Such a design not only eats up centimeters of usable area, but also creates a local load on the ceiling, since the brick has a high density (1800–2000 kg / cubic meter).
– high strength and moisture resistance;
– the possibility of erecting curved partitions.
– low speed of partition construction;
– high consumption of masonry and plaster mortar;
– high weight of the partition;
– poor surface quality;
– high cost and terms of finishing works.
Gas and foam concrete blocks
Aerated concrete blocks have a high surface quality. Partitions made of such materials do not require laborious plastering. It should be noted that aerated concrete has open communicating air pores. On the one hand, this provides the material with excellent vapor permeability, and on the other hand, it increases moisture absorption, making the blocks hygroscopic. Foam concrete is devoid of this drawback, since the air cells are closed.
When redevelopment, blocks with a thickness of 75–100 mm are used. Thinner products (50 mm) are not recommended, since the partitions of them have a low level of sound insulation and do not hold a cantilever load in the form of a bookshelf or a TV on a bracket.
– high fire resistance and sound insulation;
– large block format increases the speed of work;
– fast drying of finished structures;
– easy processing with a simple tool;
– the possibility of creating arched openings without reinforcing elements;
– high surface quality.
– low level of sound insulation of thin blocks;
– insufficient resistance to cantilever loads.
Tongue-and-groove gypsum blocks
An alternative to cellular concrete blocks is tongue-and-groove slabs. For their production, ecological gypsum, cement binder and light fillers (mineral or organic) are used. Such products have protrusions (ridges) and recesses (grooves) at the ends, and they can be rectangular or trapezoidal. The length of the plates is 667 mm, the height is 500 mm, the thickness is 80 or 100 mm. Quality products are distinguished by high geometric accuracy (permissible deviations do not exceed 0.5–2 mm) and a smooth surface.
– partitions do not require plastering for finishing. It is only necessary to seal the seams and make a thin putty;
– environmental friendliness of the material;
– vapor and gas permeability. Partitions absorb excess moisture and humidify the air;
– high speed of installation and ease of processing.
– low moisture resistance. In wet rooms, only specialized moisture-resistant blocks can be used;
– low level of sound insulation of slabs 80 mm thick.
Partitions are also made of a supporting frame (steel profile) and plasterboard sheathing. The material has a three-layer structure: a gypsum core between two sheets of strong and rigid cardboard. Several types of similar products are produced: standard gypsum boards (GKL), fire-resistant (GKLO), moisture-resistant (GKLV) and moisture-resistant (KGLVO). GKL are applied in rooms with humidity no more than 70%. To improve the fire-retardant characteristics, crushed glass fiber (glass cut) 10–12 g/sq. m. In the production of moisture-resistant material, cardboard impregnated with an antiseptic and a gypsum composition, which includes fungicides and water repellents, are used. GKLV can be used in a humid environment (humidity up to 90%), provided that water does not get on the skin.
– fast construction using dry technology. It is especially important for cosmetic repairs or tight deadlines;
– perfectly flat surface;
– the possibility of arranging sound insulation from insulation in internal voids;
– the possibility of erecting curved structures;
– vapor and air permeability.
– low strength. In order to hang a heavy shelf, it is necessary to make embedded elements. Corners require special metal reinforcement;
– low moisture resistance. Even moisture-resistant boards can be affected by water;
– exactingness in compliance with the technology of assembly of the structure and finishing. Otherwise, the structure becomes unstable and cracks appear.
The cost of erecting partitions, rub.sq.m
The cost of materials, rub. / sq. m (including cement-sand mortar, mounting adhesive, fittings)
The cost of construction and installation works, rub./sq. m
Total cost, rub./sq. m
Brick (in 0.5 bricks) from solid ceramic bricks
From foam concrete blocks 100 × 300 × 600 mm (on cement-sand mortar)
From aerated concrete blocks 75 × 300 × 600 mm (on adhesive composition)
Tongue-and-groove from gypsum boards 80 mm thick (on adhesive composition)
Plasterboard structures on a single frame with a total thickness of 125 mm, without sound insulation
What to consider when rescheduling
Internal non-load-bearing walls are required in new open-plan apartments, in the process of replacing old, cracked or crooked walls during major renovations or due to apartment redevelopment. In this case, the material of new structures can be any. It is important that the load on the prefabricated or monolithic reinforced concrete floor does not exceed the maximum parameters – 600–1250 kg / sq. m, which are determined by the length and thickness of the plates.
Redevelopment of apartments, which lead to a change in BTI plans, are divided into simple and complex. A simple redevelopment is coordinated according to a sketch and provides for minimal changes affecting non-bearing walls: combining a bathroom, moving a door in a non-bearing partition, etc. In a complex redevelopment, load-bearing walls are also affected, the communication scheme changes. This requires the development of a special project.
In the process of any redevelopment, according to the Housing Code, Sanitary Rules and other requirements, it is prohibited:
– increase the area of the kitchen, bathroom and toilet at the expense of the living quarters;
– reduce the kitchen and bathroom to increase the living space;
– equip a bathroom above the kitchen of the neighbors below;
– move the kitchen to the territory of the living quarters;
– combine living space and kitchen if there is a gas stove in the latter;
– divide one living room into several, if at least one of them does not have natural light.
Specifications and cost of materials