Sharafuga tree planting and care

The most unusual of all hybrids – sharafuga (or nectacotum) – has recently become increasingly popular. It differs in frost resistance, early fructification and unusual taste of fruits. Read more about the “strange” fruit, its features, types, the main stages of planting and caring for a tree – below.

What is a sharafuge?

This hybrid has three heat-loving “parents” – peach, apricot and plum. But, unlike them, the plant itself is frost-resistant and grows in cooler conditions. It is grown both in the south and in temperate climates.

Outwardly, the tree looks like an ordinary plum – with the same leaves and thorns. The shape and size of the fruits were inherited from the apricot, when, as a stone, it has a peculiar pattern from a peach, it is easily separated from the pulp.

The taste of the fruit depends on the maturity. Unripe specimens resemble a plum flavor, while mature ones resemble an apricot, the flesh is sweet or sour, juicy and pleasant.

Origin of the hybrid

The American biologist Floyd Seiger has been breeding this hybrid for 30 years. It was this famous breeder who earned the nickname “father of exotic fruits” by pollinating fruit trees in the garden by hand with a cosmetic brush. In his opinion, since apricot, peach and plum belong to the plum subfamily, therefore, they can interbreed with each other.

Description

What does a scarf look like? This is a compact tree with a spreading crown of medium density. Every year, the length of the shoots increases by 50-70 cm. Outwardly, it looks more like a plum. The branches have thorns. Curly leaves are noted, like a peach.

The fruits are large (6-7 cm), shaped more like apricots. Depending on the variety, the skin is colored purple or orange. Apricot aroma is barely perceptible. The fruits do not crumble, ripen in late August – early September, have a universal value. They are consumed fresh, and compotes, jams and preserves are also prepared from them. Well tolerated transportation over long distances.

Specifications

Unlike its southern parents, the sharafuga withstands frosts down to -26°C and short-term frosts down to -30°C, since the property of plums prevails in it. When the shoots freeze, it quickly recovers in the spring. It grows well in central Russia. It enters fruiting 3-4 years after planting the seedling. The maximum yield is noted in an 8-10-year-old tree.

Types of sharafuga

This hybrid is very poorly represented on the market. Only two types can be purchased from trusted sellers, which differ in the color of the fruit – bluish-violet and yellow. Purple fruits have red flesh with yellow veins and taste more like sour plums. Yellow fruits, on the skin of which orange spots are scattered, are sweeter and closer to an apricot, although in structure it is still the same plum.

In America, where the sharafuga was actually bred, there are the following varieties:

  • Bella Cerise and Bella Royale – for commercial sales;
  • Bella Gold – a variety exclusively for home cultivation with yellow fruits;
  • Velvet Sunrise – with purple.

Advantages and disadvantages

The “pluses” of culture are:

  • frost resistance;
  • high yield;
  • resistance to diseases and pests;
  • excellent appearance and taste of fruits;
  • their portability.

But there are also many disadvantages:

  • the hybrid does not produce seeds;
  • prefers only fertile soils, top dressing when growing sharafuga is a necessary procedure;
  • seed material is more expensive than conventional crops;
  • be sure to monitor soil moisture;
  • for a better fruit set near the sharafuge, it is necessary to plant a plum or apricot, the flowering of which occurs at the same time with it. Shrafuga usually blooms with a pear, so early varieties are selected.

Landing features

Experts recommend purchasing seedlings in trusted nurseries; quite often, other plum and apricot hybrids are sold under the guise of a sharafuge.

Primary requirements

As mentioned above, sharafuga grows in the middle climatic zone. If in the south it is planted both in autumn and in spring, then in the central, northern regions with a colder climate, the best solution is spring planting.

A place for a seedling is chosen sunny, even or slightly elevated. The main thing is that it is protected from cold winds. Cold air, as well as dampness, should not stagnate in the area. Landing in a lowland leads to the development of fungal diseases.

The optimal soil structure for the crop is air- and moisture-tight, fertile. If the land on the site is acidic, then it is preliminarily limed. Make 300 g of slaked lime per 1 sq. m.

Prepare it before planting in advance – in the fall. Having decided on the place for planting the seedling, they dig deep into the ground and at the same time add several buckets of humus, mineral fertilizers – 35 g of potash and 70 g of superphosphate.

Landing instructions (step by step)

In order to grow a sharafuge, follow the following instructions:

  1. In the spring, in 2-3 weeks, they dig a hole 80x80x80 cm in size;
  2. Drainage from broken bricks or pebbles of medium fraction is laid at the bottom to prevent stagnant water;
  3. A stake is driven in so that it rises 50 cm above ground level;
  4. Fill the fertile soil with a mound. It may consist of peat, humus and prepared earth from a pit, taken in equal quantities;
  5. A plant is placed on a mound and the roots are straightened;
  6. They fill up the pit, tamp the earth;
  7. The trunk of the seedling is tied to a peg;
  8. Water abundantly;
  9. The trunk circle is mulched with organic matter – rotted manure, hay, mowed grass. This agricultural technique helps to reduce the evaporation of moisture, improve soil structure, and “saturate” it with nutrients.

Agricultural technology

To get a harvest from a tree, they organize care, which consists in proper watering, timely fertilizing and soil care.

Watering the plant

The frequency of watering is directly dependent on weather conditions. If the spring turned out to be wet, then it is watered only during the hot period. Otherwise, watering is done several times in the spring.

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It is better to water the sharafugu, like the plum, by sprinkling. Or they dig a groove at a distance of 0.5 m from the trunk along a circumference 15 cm deep, and pour 2-3 buckets of water into it per 1 sq. m.

What, how and when to feed?

Top dressing is an obligatory item in the agricultural technology of the sharafuga. Apply it throughout the growing season.

In the spring, after the snow melts, they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. In summer, in the first half of June and the end of July, the tree is “fed” with potash and nitrogen fertilizers for better fruit growth and their early ripening. 1-2 foliar sprays are carried out with the same fertilizers.

soil care

After watering or precipitation, the soil is loosened and mulched. If the garden is old, then the soil under the trees is dug up with a pitchfork and a shovel. It is enough to dig around the trunk to a depth of 5-10 cm, the farther from it, the deeper the dig is up to 15 cm. The trunk circle is regularly cleaned of weeds.

Other care and cultivation activities

Sharafuga grows quite quickly, so in early spring, before the start of sap flow, all annual shoots are shortened by half. At the same time, sanitary pruning is carried out – dried, broken and diseased branches are cut out.

Diseases, pests and protection

All hybrids are disease and insect resistant. Behind the sharafuga, only a predisposition to leaf curl has been noticed, which has passed from the peach.

But preventive measures are better to apply. From sunburn and pests, whitewashing the trunk and skeletal branches with lime will help. Whiten the plant 2 times a year – in spring and autumn.

And also, in order not to provoke the appearance of pests in the fall, they carefully clean the near-trunk circle from plant debris, fallen leaves and fruits. All collected natural waste is incinerated.

At the first sign of diseases or pests, folk remedies are used. Spray the tree with an infusion of garlic or onions. With a large population of insects, you will have to use chemicals – insecticides, and with the development of diseases – fungicides.

Collection, storage and processing of crops

The crop matures depending on the region. In warmer areas, the fruits ripen in August, in areas located to the north – in early September. Since the fruits hold well on the tree, they are harvested by hand. Do not shake branches. When they hit the ground, they are damaged, which negatively affects the shelf life.

The fruits are perfect as a filling for pies, they are used to make delicious compotes and amazing jams

Reviews of gardeners

Since the hybrid is familiar to few, the reviews about it are rather contradictory:

The sharafuga hybrid is a real find for lovers of the exotic. With proper planting and following all the rules of care, the tree will give juicy fruits with an interesting taste.

Growing fruit and berry trees depends on the characteristics of the selected crop. Care can be complicated by the fact that hybrid crop varieties have different properties obtained from mother fruits. Sharafuga is a hybrid that has the taste of plum, peach and apricot at the same time. Unusual sharafuga fruits are becoming popular due to their taste characteristics, as well as improved adaptive qualities.

What is a sharafuga

The nectacotum or sharafuga was obtained as a result of complex selection manipulations. The hybrid has high quality ratings, can grow in different territories and bear fruit stably.

Hybrid peach and apricot: pros and cons

Hybrid varieties usually appear within the same species, but the sharafuga refers to breeding experiments when different species of a related type are taken for crossing. Benefits of hybridization:

  • excellent taste characteristics, combining the qualities of peach, plum and apricot;
  • a wide range of applications;
  • increased adaptive qualities;
  • high rates of frost resistance.

The disadvantages of the sharafuge are the features of agricultural technology:

Flaw Characteristic
Does not produce seed Complicated breeding
Grows only in fertile soils Requires constant feeding
Does not tolerate waterlogging Irrigation needs constant monitoring.

For gardeners, the difficulty is the choice of seedlings. Not all nurseries have sharafuga planting material available. In addition, the cost of copies is quite high.

Selection history

It took the famous American biologist F. Seiger 30 years to create a sharafuge. He believed that the Plum subfamily was capable of producing a hybrid with unique qualities. The gardener achieved its appearance by crossing different varieties of plums with peaches, nectarines, apricots.

Description and characteristics

Sharafuga fruits outwardly resemble apricots with an atypical purple color. The drawing inside the fetus after removing the stone is similar in type to peach. The taste of sharafuga pulp has been compared to peach, plum or apricot at different stages of ripeness. The stone of the fruit is separated as easily as that of a plum.

Tree Features

The tree on which the sharafuga ripens looks like a plum tree. Trees of all varieties look the same.

Appearance

The height of the sharafuge reaches 2.5 meters. The trees grow 50-70 centimeters annually, the branches form a semi-oval crown with dark green lanceolate leaves. The shape, color, as well as the arrangement of the leaf plates of the sharafuga repeat plum characteristics. Thorns grow on the branches, also characteristic of plum trees. The leaves begin to curl inward, which is common in apricot crops.

Information! Sharafuga bushes do not take up much space; with timely pruning, they can grow in a limited area.

Dimensions of the root system and crown

The root system is formed according to the type of rod. The bulk of the roots go to a depth of 20 to 40 centimeters. The size of the crown depends on the type of formation. With proper care, the crown becomes semi-oval, does not grow on the sides and takes up little space.

Who is the pollinator

In order for the tree to fully develop, apricots, plums or nectarines are planted nearby. In this case, the choice is stopped at early varieties.

Flowering and fruiting

The tree begins to bear fruit 3 or 4 years after planting. Flowering is characterized as early and long. On the territories of warm regions, it can begin at the end of April and last until June. Fruits reach consumer degree of ripeness by the middle-end of August. The fruiting of the tree, when fertilizing, is characterized as stable. It can grow in one place up to 15 years and give a good harvest.

Information! When the characteristics of the soil change, the fruits on the sharafuge become smaller.

Ripening period and harvest

A feature of the hybrid is the ability to use sharafugu at different stages of maturation. At technical ripeness, the fruits resemble a plum with a slight sourness; when fully ripe, they become like an apricot. The peel is of the glossy variety type, that is, it does not have the slight fluffiness that is characteristic of apricots.

The crop is harvested at any of the stages, the sharafuga successfully ripens during storage. Due to the dense skin, the fruits tolerate transportation well and are stored for a long time.

The taste of the fruit and its scope

The weight of one sharafuga fruit can reach 70 grams. Sharafuga pulp is characterized as sweet-sour. Apricot-plum unusual taste makes it possible to use fruits in many ways. Gardeners note that sharafugi are suitable for fresh consumption, and are also suitable for canning, making jams, assorted compotes.

See also:   Growing pears in Siberia

Variety varieties

In the homeland of sharafugi – in America, 3 varieties are grown, which have different colors, and also differ in the type of cultivation. For home cultivation, a sharafuga variety with a yellow color is suitable. Purple fruits are grown for the fruit market.

Basic Growing Requirements

Growing a sharafuga is similar to caring for plum or apricot trees. The composition of the soil, compliance with the irrigation scheme is also important. Trees do not tolerate through winds, as well as waterlogged soils, so the landing site is chosen with great care.

Landing technology

The rules for planting sharafuga seedlings include the choice of placement. The soil for hybrids is fertilized in advance: during spring planting, the site is fed with compost in the fall.

Site and seedling preparation

When choosing a landing site, they are guided by restrictions

  • through winds are excluded;
  • lowlands with a high occurrence of groundwater are excluded;
  • do not plant on poor, depleted soils with low acidity.

A good option for placing a sharafuga would be a place located on the south side, protected by buildings, with sufficient sunlight. Before planting, the seedling is soaked for several hours in a root biostimulator. Before soaking, the root system is cleaned of dirt, damaged roots.

Required soil composition

When planting sharafugi, the composition of the soil is carefully treated. A lack of nutrients can cause the plant to become poorly adapted, weak and prone to various diseases.

The planting hole dug in advance is fertilized with organic mixtures, potash and phosphorus-containing fertilizers. The acidity level should not exceed 6.5 ph. If it is higher, then liming is necessary.

Advice! To reduce the level of acidity, dolomite flour or crushed lime is added to the soil.

Terms and technology of disembarkation

Sharafuga seedlings are planted in spring or autumn. Autumn plantings are quite possible, as the culture is frost-resistant and can adapt to low temperatures.

For a sharafuga, they dig a hole at least 80 centimeters deep and about 70 centimeters wide. The prepared hole is additionally fertilized with compost if necessary. The seedling is installed in the center of the hole, next to the prepared support. The sides are sprinkled with a layer of soil, rammed. Form a circle, water the planting abundantly. At the initial stage of adaptation, the trunk and young shoots on it are sprayed with warm water from a spray gun, then they proceed to watering along the trunk circle.

How to care for a hybrid crop

Subject to the rules for the care of a sharafuga, it can grow in one place for about 15-20 years. Regular watering is essential.

Watering

When irrigating, make sure that the topsoil dries evenly. Moisture can cause root rot. During droughts, the amount of watering is increased. For one adult bush spend 10-15 liters of water.

Warning! Warm water is used for irrigation.

Fertilizer

Features of the hybrid bred culture require additional application of various types of top dressing.

  1. Before the formation of buds, the soil is fertilized with organic mixtures.
  2. When buds are formed, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen mixtures are added under the root (this will help increase the green mass).
  3. When setting buds and at the beginning of flowering, superphosphates and potassium mixtures are added.
  4. When fruits are formed, manganese, calcium, potassium, and selenium are added to stimulate ripening.
  5. After harvesting the fruits, the soil is again fertilized with organic matter.

Loosening and caring for the trunk circle

The trunk circle is formed during landing. It is expanded as the tree grows. The trunk circle, if desired, is mulched with special materials:

  • coniferous needles;
  • pressed sawdust;
  • cut grass.

Some gardeners do without additional mulch, it is necessary when it becomes important to retain and retain moisture or prevent the spread of weeds.

Loosening is carried out regardless of the presence of a mulch layer. When loosening, the soil is saturated with air, becomes lighter and more suitable for the growth and development of the underground root system.

Diseases and pests: prevention and treatment

Sharafuga shows high resistance to diseases and pests. Carrying out preventive measures completely eliminates problems during cultivation:

  • in autumn and spring, the trunk is whitened with a solution of lime;
  • in autumn, the trunk is cleaned of damaged bark, removed, and the remains of leaves are burned;
  • if insects are suspected, foliar treatment is carried out with a solution of onion or garlic.

Do I need to cover for the winter

Sharafuga adopted from plum trees the increased qualities of resistance to low temperatures. The tree hibernates at -30 degrees without loss. When the shoots freeze in the spring, the sharafuga comes to life again, begins to form buds.

In order for the tree to endure wintering, phased measures are taken to avoid freezing of the culture:

  • the trunk is whitened 10-15 centimeters from the base;
  • the trunk circle is spudded;
  • destroy damaged or diseased branches.

Short-term frosts down to -35 degrees will not cause harm if the sharafuga is properly prepared.

Sharafuga appeared in my summer cottage 5 years ago. And only this year we got the first harvest. The fruits are simply amazing, and the taste is different, depending on the state of maturity. The history of this hybrid is very interesting, and the characteristics are just on top.

There was not enough fruit to preserve, but in fresh form we managed to try this healthy and tasty mixture of plums, apricots and peaches. I was satisfied with the results, so I want to share information on how to plant and care for a sharafuga, how a hybrid differs from its “relatives”.

general description

A hybrid of apricot, peach and plum, although it is a southern “resident”, is quite well adapted to wintering in the middle lane. The emphasis in this variety is more on the plum, although the characteristic features of the peach and apricot are also fully expressed. An adult tree looks like an ordinary plum: the same dark fruits, the structure of branches and leaves is similar, and there are also thorns on the shoots.

History of occurrence

  1. Many hybrids of fruit trees, which are grown in large garden farms and amateur gardeners, owe their origin to a great worker and talented breeder, a private breeder from the USA, Floyd Zyger.
  2. For more than 30 years, this man, together with his family, without interfering with plant genetics at all, using old methods, with a careful attitude and love for nature, has been creating hybrids that have different names, depending on the percentage of fruit. For example, there is pluot (a hybrid that includes 75% plum and 25% apricot), aprium (75% apricot and 25% plum).
  3. A real breakthrough was a complex and unusual hybrid consisting of plum, peach and apricot. The public accepted this achievement with delight, as the plant is intended for cultivation not only in private gardens, but also for mass consumption.
  4. No one knows the origin of the name Sharafuga, but it has taken root, and has become the hallmark of an amazing fruit. In total, F. Seiger patented about 500 unusual new fruit plants with excellent taste.

Basic morphological features

  • In appearance, the fruits are similar to plums, but their size is larger (6-7 cm). The hue in the mature state is purple, but the shape of the fruit is more like an apricot.
  • The stone of the fruit has a more rounded outline, it is separated from the juicy pulp very easily. On the pulp itself, you can see a pattern characteristic of a peach. Fruits grow on stalks and practically do not crumble.
  • The taste of the ripe fruit is sweet, combining apricot and plum, but at the stage of physiological maturity, the taste of apricot is more pronounced. There is no pronounced aroma in this hybrid.
  • The advantage of the hybrid is the ability to taste fruits even in an unripe state. Those who grow the crop consume the crop not only fresh, but also use it to make delicious and fragrant compotes, preserves and jams.
  • The sharafuga tree is single-stemmed, with a spreading crown, medium density. By the way, in the structure of the tree, one can also notice signs of plum (leaf structure and thorns) and apricot (location of skeletal branches and bark color).
  • Each year, the growth is approximately 50 – 70 cm. Fruits reach maturity, mainly from the second decade of August to mid-September. If you follow all the agrotechnical recommendations, you will get the first fruits quite quickly – in the third or fourth year after planting the seedling.

One of the main features that the plant took from plums is frost resistance and adaptability to sudden changes in temperature. This quality allows you to grow sharafugu in the middle lane without much hassle.

It is advisable to collect the fruits on time, in the first half of September. They do not fall, but they are very fond of birds, especially jays.

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Many summer residents, as an experiment, graft various fruit trees to the sharafuge: cuttings of apricot, plums or cherry plums.

Planting agrotechnics

If you are familiar with the rules for planting fruit trees, like plum and apricot, then growing a sharafuga will not cause any particular difficulties. Let’s take a closer look at where to start.

Place and dates

  1. In the southern regions, you can land in the fall. The seedling will have time to adapt and take root before the onset of cold weather.
  2. In temperate regions, it is better to plant young trees in the spring. Choose a site that is spacious enough where the plant will receive a lot of sun.
  3. You can not plant a tree in a site where it is damp and groundwater flows close to the soil surface. In this case, land on high ground.
  4. It is advisable to plant on the south, southeast or southwest side of the site, where there will be no drafts and cold winds.

The soil

It is very important that the soil passes air well, and oxygen in the right amount enters the root system. The soil should be loose and fertile.

Prepare a landing site in advance. It is necessary to carefully dig up the soil and add 2 – 3 buckets of compost or humus, 70 – 80 g of superphosphate and 35 – 40 g of potash fertilizer (for example, Kalimag) per 1 m2.

If the acidity level is too high, then liming. Add dolomite flour or 0.3 – 0.5 kg of lime per 1 m2. Trees will live no more than 40 – 60 years, since the plum is not a long-liver.

Landing

  • Dig a landing hole measuring 80 x 80 x 80 cm. Be sure to put a layer of drainage on the bottom, which should consist of broken brick, crushed stone or pebbles, you can add a little coarse-grained river sand.
  • Make a mound in the middle (mix the soil from the pit, humus and peat in equal parts) and drive in a wooden stake that will serve as a support for the young tree. It should rise above the soil surface by at least half a meter.
  • Place the seedling on a raised platform and spread the root shoots well. Fill in the ground and tamp a little so that no voids form in the root system.
  • After planting, tie the seedling to a stake. Plentifully water the tree and mulch the near-trunk circle with organic matter. Thus, moisture will remain in the soil much longer, and weeds will not grow.

Features of care

If you already have plums growing, then you can handle growing sharafugi. The only difference in care is a slightly different fertilizer schedule.

Watering

  1. Make grooves 10 – 15 cm deep around the entire perimeter of the circumferential circle. It is convenient to pour water into them, which will not spread and nourish the roots with moisture.
  2. Trees should not be flooded. Water as the topsoil dries out. Soil moistening is carried out as needed, it is necessary to increase it only on the hottest and driest summer days. The rate of water per 1 m2 – 20 – 30 liters.
  3. Depending on the composition of the soil, more water may be needed if the soil is loamy and heavy. Water should penetrate to the very roots, to a depth of 50 – 60 cm.

Fertilizer

It is carried out in several stages. In the autumn, after fruiting and before the onset of cold weather, the tree must be fed and organic matter added (2-3 buckets of humus). It is advisable to add mineral fertilizers: 5 tbsp. l. superphosphate and 2 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate per 1 m2.

In the spring, immediately after the snow melts, it is recommended to apply nitrogen-containing fertilizers to the soil. 3 art. l. mix urea in water and pour evenly over the soil in the near-stem circle. In summer, you can also feed the trees with nutrients. Suitable “Kemira”, use the drug strictly according to the instructions.

loosening

  • One of the important stages is the regular loosening of the soil. The procedure can be done with a shovel or special forks. Hold the shovel radially with respect to the tree trunk.
  • The closer to the trunk, the shallower the depth. Dig up the soil very carefully so as not to damage the root system of the sharafuga.
  • In the summer, weed at least several times a month. It is important that weeds do not interfere with the development and growth of the tree, which especially needs nutrients in spring and summer.

Diseases and pests

From the peach, the sharafuge got a tendency to twist the leaf plates. It is necessary to regularly monitor the plants and, if necessary (infections, viruses, attacks of harmful insects), treat them with drugs. Although the sharafuga has such an advantage – resistance to diseases.

If you notice signs of a disease, then immediately remove all affected areas of trees (leaves and branches) and treat the crown with fungicides and insecticides. To protect the trees, carry out all types of pruning (shaping, sanitary and rejuvenation) in a timely manner, as well as remove and burn the foliage that accumulates under the trees.

There is no need to immediately turn to chemical preparations in case of a sharafugi disease. You can try folk methods first. Onion and garlic infusions help against many infections and viruses.

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