Sage is one of the most famous and widespread essential oil herbaceous plants of the Lamiaceae family. It grows on almost the entire Mediterranean coast. In this large family, there are about nine hundred species of plants. True, not all of them have healing properties.
Decorative types of sage have found application in landscape design. In folk medicine, oak, nutmeg, steppe, meadow and medicinal species are most often used. This plant is grown in fields, gardens, orchards. The medicinal properties of sage were known in ancient Egypt, where women used infusions from this herb to stimulate conception. In addition to the fact that the plant has decorative and healing properties, some types of sage are used in cooking. It is an excellent seasoning for meat and fish dishes.
In this article, we will present you with the types, photos and names of sage, or rather, its varieties, we will tell you how to properly apply this culture in the treatment of certain diseases. According to the method of use and to designate plants, flower growers and gardeners in everyday life call decorative types of sage (you will see the photo below), as well as varieties that are used to decorate various flower beds, salvia, from the Latin name of the genus – Salvia.
Plants used in medicine are called sage. Such a name, in fact, is an adaptation of the Latin name to the Russian language. The name of the plant, salvare, translates as “protect”, “save”
Under natural conditions, various types of sage grow in tropical and temperate regions of almost the entire world. The only exceptions are Australia and the Far North. Only in America there are about five hundred species of sage. Photos of the plant can be seen in all reference books and manuals for naturalists.
Under natural conditions, the plant prefers sunny places – rocky slopes, light forests, flooded and dry meadows, wastelands.
Sage: types and varieties
A huge family of sage combines such a number of decorative species that it is quite possible to create a variety of options for a decorative grassy carpet even for sophisticated flower growers. An amazing plant is sage. The types and differences between them allow you to choose a plant according to your preferences: some are distinguished by bright flowering, others create a durable and also fragrant carpet, others have a delicious taste.
Fast growing, unpretentious and undemanding to care for, sage is an excellent partner for many ornamental foliage and flowering plants. Most types of sage, photos of which can be found not only in manuals for herbalists, but also in landscape design, have healing properties to one degree or another.
Infusions and decoctions of sage are used to treat infertility, colds and viral diseases. In addition, medicinal preparations based on this plant are effective in a number of skin diseases, endocrine and neurological problems.
The types of sage officinalis, photos of which are available in the article, were most widely represented in southeastern Europe – Yugoslavia and Albania, Greece and Italy. Over time, they spread throughout Europe, and even later – around the world. The leaves of this sage contain an essential oil rich in pinene, thujone, alkaloids, D-camphor, flavonoids and tannins.
In the fruits of this type of sage there is an essential oil containing glycerides and linoleic acid. Different types of sage officinalis are most common in our country. Sometimes it is also called gardening.
A plant about eighty centimeters high, with a straight stem of a tetrahedral or rounded shape, branched and pubescent in the upper part. The leaves are gray-green in color, with whitish villi. They are elongated – from lanceolate to ovoid, up to ten centimeters long. The upper leaves are located on petioles, and the upper ones are without them. There are cold-resistant varieties:
- Aurea with creamy green leaves.
- Purpurascens with burgundy greens.
- Cterina with golden yellow, green-flecked leaves.
- Tricolor with creamy burgundy leaves.
In early summer, light purple flowers appear. Flowering continues throughout the summer. Sage is cross-pollinated. The fruits of the plant are small brown nuts, about three millimeters in diameter.
A variety of medicinal sage. This plant is up to a meter high with funnel-shaped red flowers that appear on the branches in late summer. If the leaves of this type of sage are rubbed in the palms, you will feel a fruity smell. This plant has found use in cooking, for example in fruit salads. The most popular varieties are Scarlet Pineapple, Tangerine Sage.
Some types of sage, the description of which can be found in reference books on herbal medicine, have exclusively medicinal properties. For example, clary sage has been used in medicine for a very long time. In addition, it is grown for essential oils. Today, such types of clary sage as Voznesensky 24, Crimean early and late are popular.
This plant can also be attributed to decorative types of sage (we posted a photo in this article) due to its compact size. This biennial plant does not exceed forty centimeters in height. Clary sage naturally grows in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Europe, and is cultivated everywhere.
This variety is also grown for the production of such a valuable product as sage oil. Sage grows mainly on sands, arable land, on clay and stony soils. The roots of this species contain coumarins, and the inflorescences and leaves contain aromatic resins. The plant has powerful antibacterial properties, and its roots, according to healers, prevent the development of tumors in the body.
Perennial types of sage: photo, description
Despite the fact that this is a heat-loving plant, some of its varieties tolerate winter frosts quite well. These include meadow and oak species.
The plant is common in Europe. This type of sage prefers to settle on grassy and rocky slopes. Meadow sage in folk medicine is used in the form of tea, infusions for scrofula, ringworm, diseases of the digestive tract, scabies. In addition, infusions are effective for respiratory diseases, as well as for external use in the form of compresses, as well as rinses for periodontal disease, stomatitis, tonsillitis.
Meadow sage essential oil has an antimycotic effect. It has found application in cosmetology and perfumery. Salvia pratensis is much more fragrant than medicinal. Young leaves are astringent, while older leaves are bitter. For harvesting and drying, young shoots are cut before flowering. Popular varieties are Superba, Sensation White. The plant perfectly tolerates the summer heat, losing bitterness. It is added to various dishes, mainly from fish and veal.
This variety of sage is found in the European part of our country, in Central Europe, the foothills of the Crimea. The plant prefers forest edges, upland meadows and steppe slopes. Oak sage in its composition contains phytoncides, mineral salts, essential oils and tannins. Its flowering period is from late June to September.
This type of sage, a photo of which can be seen in floriculture reference books, has wrinkled leaves, the size of which decreases from bottom to top. The plant is represented in our country by many varieties that differ from each other in shades of inflorescences (lilac, purple, blue), flowering time, and size of bushes. The most common varieties are Schwellenburg, Caradonna, Adrian,
Schneehugel, Marcus, Plumosa.
In nature, there are also types of sage prohibited for cultivation in our country. You can see a photo of the Salvia divinorum plant below. This species does not have any cardinal differences in structure from other representatives of its genus. It is a perennial rhizomatous, at the beginning of development – herbaceous, and later – semi-shrub plant.
Under natural conditions, it grows in the subtropics throughout the year. This is a rather rare species in its family, most widely represented in the remote mountainous regions of Mexico. The sage of soothsayers has long been used by the indigenous inhabitants of the country – the Indians of the Mazatec tribe – for ritual rites, predictions.
The thing is that the leaves of this plant contain the strongest hallucinogen – salvinorin A, for this reason, even today, lovers of narcotic mixtures smoke sage predictors. That is why the plant is prohibited for cultivation in our country.
Types of decorative sage are actively used in landscaping summer cottages and garden plots, territories of country houses, parks and squares. Brilliant sage looks spectacular on flowerbeds, discounts. Compact varieties can be planted on balconies in pots and containers and are used in mixed arrangements to create bright spots. These plants are decorative throughout the season.
This shrub is perfect for planting against the background of stones. Its large and beautiful rosettes with pubescent leaves in the first year and huge airy inflorescences in the second are unusually spectacular.
Yurisich’s sage and dandelion-leaf – look great in mixboders in the foreground and in rockeries. Sage is practically not used for cutting, but mealy sage is an exception in this sense. Its velvety dark blue inflorescences in a vase retain their decorative effect for a long time, and when dried, they are an interesting material for creating winter bouquets. For the same purpose, faded whorled sage of the Purple Rain variety with very beautiful cups of purple and green sage is suitable.
In the article, many types of sage were presented to you. The photo and description will help you choose the right variety for growing in your garden or summer cottage. In addition to the species that we talked about, in natural conditions there are: green (variegated) and red sage, pigeon and golden, mountain silver and Remer, etc. Moreover, each type of plant also has dozens of varieties. And now it’s time to talk about what healing properties this plant has.
Sage leaves contain:
- essential oils.
In folk, as well as in traditional medicine, tinctures and infusions of the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of diseases of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx. In addition, due to the large amount of vitamins and active substances in them, the leaves have astringent, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Sage leaves reduce sweating and improve the functioning of the digestive tract.
Since ancient times, an infusion of sage seeds has been used to speed up pregnancy. Traditional healers use this remedy in the treatment of both men and women. They claimed that this drug increases the “sucking” properties of the cervix and promotes conception.
But the roots of this plant are used by folk healers only in some countries. For example, in Korea, they are considered a powerful pain reliever and anti-inflammatory agent. In addition, in some cases they are used to treat algic dysmenorrhea and rheumatoid arthritis, to normalize the menstrual cycle.
Medicines based on sage: infusion
To prepare the infusion, you will need one part of dry raw materials, which is poured into ten parts of boiled warm water. You can take one part of fresh, pre-washed and crushed leaves and pour them with five parts of water. The leaves must be infused for at least two hours. Such a composition can be used as a disinfectant and anti-inflammatory agent for lotions, rinses, compresses, etc.
To prepare this remedy, pour a spoonful (tablespoon) of dry leaves with 200 ml of water and place the container in a water bath for twenty minutes. You can cook a decoction of sage in red wine. This remedy has a beneficial effect on the kidneys and liver. The effect of sage will be even more enhanced if wormwood grass is added to the decoction.
Decoctions are used to treat hypertension, atherosclerosis, trembling paralysis. For various diseases of the oral cavity and throat, rinsing with a decoction is recommended. You can forever forget about inflammation of the gums if you regularly rinse your mouth with a decoction of this plant at least once a day.
It is an effective and safe drug widely used to treat diseases of the throat, mouth, and upper respiratory tract. This tool has undeniable advantages:
- natural composition;
- does not contain sugar, therefore it can be used by patients suffering from diabetes;
- the effect occurs fifteen minutes after the dissolution of the tablet.
It has many medicinal properties. It reduces or completely relieves pain, reduces lactation if necessary, raises low blood pressure, promotes the speedy scarring of tissues and healing of wounds, eliminates excessive sweating. The oil has an antispasmodic, tonic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, blood-purifying, diuretic effect.
It has found wide application in cosmetology. It is used to narrow pores, to care for oily skin. It normalizes the balance of sebum secretion, stops hair loss, and eliminates dandruff.
Contraindications to the use of sage
The use of sage for medicinal purposes is allowed only after consultation with a specialist, especially when it comes to taking drugs inside. It should not be forgotten that sage treatment is not a panacea for all diseases, the plant has quite a few contraindications, which include:
- individual intolerance to its individual components;
- pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- age up to five years;
- acute nephritis;
- diseases of the nervous system;
- uterine myoma;
- polycystic ovaries;
With prolonged use of drugs based on sage, some disorders of the nervous system, irritation of the mucous membranes may occur.
Growing a plant
Despite the variety of sage species and the differences between them, there are also growing requirements that unite all varieties:
- plants develop more actively on sandy light soils;
- prefer normal soil acidity (pH 6.5);
- perennial species need shelter and spring pruning.
You can grow this plant in three ways: from seedlings, sowing seeds in the ground, dividing the bushes. If you want to grow sage at home, the seeds should first be soaked in Energen solution, which is a growth stimulator. To do this, dilute five drops of the drug in a quarter liter of water. Place the seeds in a cotton bag and soak in the solution for a day. After that, dry them a little and sow them in small separate containers, one seed at a time. Experienced flower growers recommend using peat pots.
In spring, germinated seeds can be immediately sown in open ground. Pre-dig the selected area, make grooves and moisten them a little. Seeds are sown to a depth of no more than three centimeters. The distance between them is about fifteen centimeters. If sage is planted in late autumn, dry seeds must be used. Although this plant is not demanding on the composition of the soil, gardeners note that it develops more actively on well-moistened and fertile soil.
Decorative species are photophilous. This must be taken into account when choosing a landing site.
Even a beginner in floriculture can take care of sage: the plant is undemanding in care. He needs only a rather rare watering, regular loosening of the soil around the shrub, weeding and top dressing. Every year, in early spring, organic fertilizers must be applied under the plant. Judging by the reviews of gardeners, liquid formulations are most suitable for this purpose – Agricola-Vegeta, Effekton-O.
In summer, it is necessary to feed the shrub twice. Sage can be grown in the same place for no more than six years. A plant older than four years old should be rejuvenated. Usually this procedure is carried out in early April. Shoots should be cut at a height of fifteen centimeters from the soil. This simple operation will make your plants more branchy and flowering more active.
Collection of raw materials
Sage is harvested twice a season. The first collection is held in early June. It is at this time that essential oil accumulates in the leaves. The second time sage is harvested in September. The grass is dried in the open air, laying it out on a cloth or paper in a thin layer.
Drying can be carried out in an oven or in an electric dryer at a temperature of + 30-35 ° C. At higher temperatures, essential oils volatilize. Raw materials retain their useful properties for a year and a half. Store harvested grass in canvas or paper bags.
The miraculous features of sage have been known to man for several millennia. Pharaohs drank sage infusions to keep their youth. The ancient Romans gave them to women to drink so that children were born strong. During the plague period of medieval Europe, the strength of the sick was supported by a healing potion.
According to Wikipedia, sage ( Latin name – Salvia) is a herbaceous perennial shrub of the Lamiaceae family. Medicinal species have found recognition in scientific and traditional medicine, cosmetology, cooking, perfumery, and decorative ones – in landscape design.
In addition to the traditional name , sage is called noble, cross, royal or, tracing from Latin, salvia. In the everyday speech of different localities, you can hear: honey, blue initial letter, kokish, samose, lettuce, sage. On English packaging, they are referred to as garden (common) sage.
Where and how does it grow
The range of wild salvia is the Mediterranean, especially Italy, Serbia, Albania. The shrub is actively cultivated in the southern steppe regions of Russia, in the territories of Slovakia, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Moldova, and Ukraine.
Cultures are thermophilic, resistant to drought, but defenseless against frost. Propagated by dividing the bush or seeds. If planted in the spring, then from the end of August you can harvest the first crop.
What does it look like
The average height of the sage half-bush is 70-75 cm.
Salvia is valued for its content:
- vitamins (A, group B, C, E, K, PP);
- essential oil containing cineole, thujone, borneol, other terpenes;
- flavonoids (plant polyphenols that activate enzymes);
- organic acids (ursolic, oleanolic, chlorogenic);
- micro-, macroelements (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron).
There is a species of sage that causes a hallucinogenic state. The ancient Gauls used it in rituals to communicate with spirits.
The plant itself does not emit a strong aroma. But if you rub the leaves between your fingers, a sharp specific smell appears . Reminds me of something between lavender and tobacco with a hint of camphor.
Benefit and danger
Salvia has a whole range of useful actions:
It is used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory organs, for colds, to combat gynecological and reproductive problems. Read more about the positive impact on the human body in the following sections.
Among the many varieties there are toxic plants . Therefore, with a lack of experience and knowledge, one should refrain from self-procurement of raw materials in order to avoid possible poisoning.
Together with garden and ornamental varieties , there are about 900 species of salvia . Let’s take a look at the most popular ones.
Honey plant. In the wild, it is found in Mediterranean countries, grows on mountain slopes, forest edges. Domesticated in temperate zones. The size reaches 90 cm, the length of the leaf plate is 10 cm, the stem is densely leafy, the flowers are blue, lilac, light purple. Flowering from June, fruiting from mid-August. Unpretentious in care.
English Sage oakwood/lat. Salvia nemorosa
Distributed in the Caucasus, Central and Western Asia, South and Central Europe. Biennial and perennial varieties are cultivated. Grows up to 1 meter. The stem is erect, the leaves are oval-cordate, the inflorescences are paniculate, the flowers come in various colors (pale purple, light lilac, white-pink). It is not picky about the soil, loose chernozem, loamy, sandy loamy areas are suitable. Blooms in June. It is actively used in winemaking, perfumery.
English Clary sage/lat. Salvia sclarea
70 cm perennial. The rhizome is woody, the stem is pubescent, straight, the leaves are sharp or obtuse, oblong, wrinkled, have a silvery tint (5–8 cm), the flowers are large, often blue-violet. Prefers warm mountainous areas, moderately moist soil. Asia Minor is considered the birthplace of the pharmacy honey.
English Sage officinalis/lat. Salvia officinalis
Tall plant (up to 80 cm) with a straight hairy stem, opposite lanceolate leaves. The inflorescences are long, located at a noticeable distance from the greenery, the corollas are bright purple with blue. Places of natural growth – fields, rocky, grassy slopes, forest edges.
eng. Meadow sage/lat. Salvia pratensis
A species of oak sage ( in Latin caradonna ). A thin candle-shaped bush with bluish pubescent leaves, with 20-30 cm ink-violet inflorescences. Decorative, drought-resistant, easy to grow. If the drainage is organized correctly, it safely tolerates wintering. The flowering period is June-September.
eng. Caradonna sage/lat. Salvia caradonna
General name for ornamental crops. Distributed in temperate and tropical climatic zones of all continents except Australia. Upright semi-bush up to 1.2 meters high. The leaves are oblong, sometimes pinnately dissected, dark green on the front side, whitish on the inside. The flowers are small, purple, purple, pink or white.
eng. Perennial sage/lat. Salvia perennial
Medicinal properties and contraindications
After salvia, both positive and negative dynamics can be observed. Pregnant women, nursing mothers, people with thyroid diseases, hypotension, epileptics should refuse sage-containing preparations, infusions and other forms. In a healthy person, their excessive use causes intoxication, causing nausea, weakness, and migraines. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the instructions for use .
More on useful features below.
Pharmaceutical grade leaves:
- restore protective functions;
- relieve insomnia;
- increase resistance to stress;
- stimulate expectoration of sputum;
- improve peristalsis, remove bile;
- remove influenza intoxication.
Indications for external use are wounds, burns, frostbite, acne, throat congestion, baldness.
Traditionally, for a decoction, a mixture of a tablespoon of dried chopped herbs and 250 milliliters of pure water is kept for 15 minutes in a water bath. Cool, filter, if necessary, add boiled water to restore the original volume of liquid. Store no longer than 12 hours.
In addition to the previous section, blooming honeydew:
- stabilizes nervous activity;
- increases efficiency, concentration;
- removes toxins, heals the digestive organs;
- stops bleeding.
Rinsing with a decoction reduces inflammation of the gums , relieves toothache.
Useful properties of salvia for men’s health:
- stimulates the production of testosterone;
- makes spermatozoa more mobile, viable;
- resists infertility;
- enhances the effect of drugs that stimulate conception;
- supports the functioning of the prostate gland;
- eliminates the effects of stress, overwork;
- enhances potency, promotes sexual desire.
Can men drink an infusion of sage leaves all the time? No, continuous use should not exceed a month, then a three-week pause should be made.
Thanks to phytoestrogens, similar in structure to female hormones, salvia:
- stabilizes the hormonal background;
- helps to more easily endure menopausal hot flashes;
- eliminates frigidity;
- reduces the level of irritability, stops mood swings;
- relieves gynecological inflammation;
- increases the chance of conception.
Salvia will also help when a nursing mother needs to stop lactating. After individual selection, tea, ordinary or alcoholic infusion, extract, pharmacological tablets are dosed.
For children, sage preparations are usually prescribed for lesions of the gums, oral mucosa, and angina. They have an anti-inflammatory effect, inhibit pathogenic bacteria, and relieve coughing. Ingestion, inhalation, baths are practiced. The latter are acceptable for infants when it is necessary to accelerate the healing of the umbilical zone, eliminate prickly heat, diathesis, and normalize the baby’s sleep.
Application of sage
Sage is used as a medicine, as a cosmetic product for the face and hair, as a seasoning , as a base for aromatherapy procedures.
A tart, spicy-astringent spice with a slight bitterness is added everywhere : to soups, fish, meat dishes, vegetable stews, casseroles, sauces, salads, canned food, drinks, tea compositions.
It is believed that seasoning balances fat content, promotes better absorption of high-calorie dishes. Plus, it increases the shelf life of cooked foods, as it prevents the development of bacteria.
The main thing is not to overdo it, not to interrupt the taste of spices with the taste of the main ingredients.
What to replace ? Suitable marjoram, thyme, savory, rosemary.
Care cosmetics with the addition of salvia are used to improve hair structure, prevent early gray hair, and get rid of dandruff. Phyto-decoction rinses hair, essential oil enhances the effect of industrial shampoos, balms, conditioners (a couple of drops per single dose).
Quick hair mask : take a raw yolk, mix two drops of honey oil into it, rub at the roots, soak under a towel for half an hour, rinse.
Favorably, the herb affects problematic, aging and dry skin . The rejuvenating effect is achieved by wiping the face with ice from herbal infusion. Homemade lotion with cream will relieve dryness. Steam baths will eliminate acne, acne on the face , heal small wounds. In combination with base oil, sage ether increases the effectiveness of facial massage: it refreshes, reduces swelling, puffiness, and smoothes out unevenness.
Anti -wrinkle mask : Combine the cooled decoction (2 tablespoons of herbs per cup of boiling water) with powdered milk until the consistency of sour cream. Apply to the skin, wait 10-15 minutes, rinse with lukewarm water.
In folk medicine
Leaves and flowers are used in alternative medicine . They often act as a component of breast, gastric mixtures. Infusions, decoctions are good for compresses, lotions, douching, enemas, baths. Gargling with sage is recommended for inflammation in the throat , inhalation – for coughing . Sage tea produces a tonic effect.
What exactly is treated with salvia, read below.
The range of operation is wide: from superficial lesions, mechanical damage to serious illnesses.
Sage-containing products are indicated for:
- diseases of the oral cavity, throat ( toothache , stomatitis, tonsillitis);
- problems with the gastrointestinal tract (ulcer, gastritis );
- diseases of the respiratory system ( bronchitis , pneumonia);
- a cold;
- the initial stage of diabetes;
- skin rashes (dermatitis, acne, psoriasis);
- cuts, frostbite, burns;
- reduced immunity;
- chronic fatigue;
With a strong cough, a glass of milk boiled for five minutes with a teaspoon of grass will help. A slightly cooled drink is drunk in small sips at a time.
Thanks to several properties, sage is recommended for weight loss. It dulls the feeling of hunger, while energizing, removes toxins, blocks free radicals, speeds up metabolism, regulates stools, relieves flatulence, and helps reduce cellulite.
Dried or fresh plant is seasoned with diet food, smoothies. But a more tangible result will be from the decoction drunk by the course (no longer than 3 months in a row).
To do this, pour a tablespoon of dry collection or a handful of fresh leaves with a glass (250 ml) of clean water, heat for 15 minutes in a water bath. Then insist for another 20 minutes under the lid, strain. Drink half a glass before the main meals. It is allowed to occasionally diversify the drink with a slice of lemon, honey, a piece of ginger. Before taking a sage “elixir” for a long time , it is advisable to consult a doctor.
Now you know what benefits and sometimes harm Salvia officinalis can bring.
Sage (lat. Salvia) is a tall perennial herbaceous plant, rarely a shrub up to 0.75 m tall. Belongs to the family of yasnotkovye. This group is characterized by a developed rhizome, a sinewy branched stem and abundant flowering all summer. The flowers are collected in erect arrow-shaped inflorescences – brushes. Different types of sage have found application in medicine, landscape design, cooking, aromatherapy and other areas of human life.
Types of sage: description and photo
Today there are more than 800 species. Plants love a warm, humid climate and good light. In the wild nature of Europe, sage grows in the Mediterranean countries. The natural habitat of 450 species has become the tropical and subtropical zones of both Americas. In central Russia, 11 plant varieties are most common.
Salvia officinalis is a perennial shrub. Reaches a height of 60-70 cm. In nature, it grows on the sunny slopes of Italy and Greece. Artificially brought to Russia. In a number of countries it is grown for industrial production. In our country, it is cultivated in the Krasnodar Territory. In the more northern regions, the shrub often freezes out.
What sage looks like, you can see in the photo, this is:
- Developed root system and straight branched stem.
- Leaves up to 40 mm long, strongly pubescent, gray-green in color.
- Inflorescence erect. Consists of 8-10 purple or lilac flowers, up to 1 cm in diameter each.
The plant belongs to the cross-pollinated group. When grown from seeds in the first year, a large green bush grows. It begins to bloom and bear fruit from the second vegetative season. Pink inflorescences adorn the shrub in the first half of summer. In September, fruits are formed – small nuts, 2-3 mm each. Seeds, subject to storage conditions, do not lose their germination for 3.5 years.
Medicinal properties have leaves and young shoots of sage officinalis. They contain:
- derivatives of essential oils in the form of pinene, cineole and camphor;
- polyunsaturated vegetable acids;
- alkaloid and flavonoid compounds.
Due to the composition of the green parts of the plant:
- have antimicrobial activity;
- reduce inflammation when applied topically;
- increase diuresis;
- have an astringent effect;
- stop bleeding.
The leaves and flowers of the sage of the first year of life are harvested in September. In adult shrubs, starting from the second year, raw materials are harvested 2-3 times during the summer. After cutting, the bush is restored in 2-3 weeks. For a season, sage gives up to 1 kg of raw materials. Dried material is stored in a well-ventilated area, avoiding direct sunlight.
Dried sage is used in folk medicine as a decoction and tincture. Shown in such cases:
- with tonsillitis, stomatitis, tonsillitis as a local antiseptic;
- insolation due to essential oils improve sputum discharge in bronchitis;
- tinctures are used in the complex therapy of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
You can not use products based on the leaves and flowers of the plant for women in the last trimester of pregnancy and people with kidney failure of the 3rd degree.
A perennial herbaceous plant up to half a meter high is widely distributed in central Russia.
Oak sage (photo attached) has the following structure:
- The bush is formed by high tetrahedral stems.
- The height and width of the plant are approximately the same, so it looks like a ball.
- The leaves are dark and large at the base. Higher along the length of the stem, they decrease in size.
- The inflorescence reaches 40 cm in length. As the photo shows, the flower is bright purple with a blue tint at the tips of the petals.
The culture grows well in open sunny spaces, withstands a slight penumbra. The soil requires light, enriched with lime. The variety is winter-hardy, therefore it is widely grown in flower beds and front gardens.
“Ostfriesland” blooms 2 times per season. The first wave begins at the end of May and continues until mid-July. The second flowering is later – the end of August. If September turns out to be warm, sage will please the eye for the entire first month of autumn. The fruits ripen in 1.5-2 months. They look like brown nuts up to 1.5 mm in length.
Oak sage is an ornamental flower. Unpretentiousness in cultivation and care, resistance to frost, undemanding to frequent watering made the bush common among flower growers. In open ground, it begins to bloom for the first time in the second half of summer. Regular fertilizing with mineral fertilizers makes flowering brighter and more abundant.
This is a perennial herb, sage reaches a height of about 20-40 cm. It can be found in any European country. Prefers open sunny plains or rocky slopes on the south side.
- Characterized by a straight stem, covered at the base with numerous hairs.
- The leaves are elongated, larger at the base. Closer to the inflorescence lighter and smaller.
- The flowers are large, collected in brushes of white, pink and purple flowers. From afar, they look like bluebells with flowers up to 10-15 mm in length.
Meadow sage is a cross-pollinated plant. Blooms all summer. Undemanding to soils. Resistant to lack of moisture. Photophilous, not afraid of direct sunlight. Seeds in the form of small nuts ripen in late summer.
The herb has found wide application in folk medicine. Essential oils with antioxidants found in the green parts of the plant:
- provide bactericidal effect;
- reduce inflammatory processes;
- promote sputum discharge in acute and chronic bronchial diseases.
Due to the wide distribution and healing properties of meadow sage, it is used in medicine and cosmetology in the following cases:
- with stomatitis, gingivitis, tonsillitis in the form of tinctures for rinsing;
- with a wet cough with difficult to separate sputum for thinning in the form of inhalations;
- a decoction is taken orally to raise immunity during epidemics;
- in the complex therapy of gastrointestinal diseases;
- in children for the treatment of oral candidiasis;
- for hair and scalp care.
Decoctions and tinctures of meadow sage are used with caution for children under 2 years old, pregnant and lactating women.
A tall perennial ornamental plant up to 90 cm, which has a bright exotic appearance (a sage photo demonstrates the beauty of the variety). It can be found in any corner of the middle zone of our country. Demanded in neighboring countries and in Eastern Europe. Almost never found in the wild. Most often it is part of a flower arrangement or a separate flower bed.
- The stems are tall, straight, densely covered with leaves. At the base they are darker and larger.
- The inflorescence is large, rich purple.
It starts blooming at the end of May. With proper care, flowering continues until mid-September. Fruits in the form of small nuts up to 15 mm in length are formed in 30-35 days.
The bush is drought resistant. The soil requires light, rich in lime or mineral fertilizers. It is better to plant the plant on the sunny side. The flower is not afraid of direct sunlight, and the shadow has a detrimental effect on it. Watering requires moderate. In hot July, it is better to water every other day. In May and August – 1 time in 5-7 days.
Mandatory fertilizing with fertilizers from May to September every 2 weeks. This will ensure uninterrupted flowering and brightness of the inflorescences.
Exceptionally decorative. Serves as a decoration for flower arrangements throughout the summer. Combinations with evergreens are especially common. In a number of countries it is used in cooking as a spicy seasoning. Experienced summer residents love Caradonna for its honey-bearing qualities. Flowerbeds next to the apiary give honey a special aroma and caramel taste.
This is a decorative form of wild sage up to 120 cm in height. It can be found in the flowerbeds of most cities in the European part of Russia. In Europe, it is more often grown in villas or private estates.
This is a large shrub that, with proper care, acquires a spherical shape. It has the following structure:
- The stems are thick, straight, with well-defined edges.
- The leaves are heart-shaped, close to the stem.
- Flowers are collected in an arrow at the end of the stem. Its length can reach 25-30 cm. The color of the inflorescences depends on the variety. As shown in the photo, the flowers have lilac, lilac, pink shades. Red Salvia looks spectacular in the flower beds.
The plant is unpretentious in care. For long flowering requires moderate watering, loose soil and a sunny side without dimming. The lack of direct sunlight causes fading of the leaves, the susceptibility of the plant to fungal diseases, and a decrease in the flowering period. Sage Salvia is cross-pollinated. Due to this, it is an excellent honey plant. Nuts ripen 30 days after flowering.
Growing Salvia from seed requires skill and equipment. In February, seeds are sown under a film or in a greenhouse. Seedlings are planted in open ground at the end of April. It is necessary to carefully loosen the soil and apply mineral fertilizers every 2-3 weeks.
Salvia is a bright ornamental plant. The shrub blooms all summer. Easily gets along with other neighbors in the flower bed. Collected in one composition, Salvia will provide a well-groomed and stylish look to the backyard. If there is an apiary nearby, the flowers will attract bees. Honey collected from flowers has a characteristic amber hue.
Mountain silver (shiny)
This is a wild-growing sage adapted to the conditions of the urban environment. In nature, it is found in mountainous, hard-to-reach areas. By selection, its artificial subspecies were bred, which are distinguished by their unpretentiousness and high decorative properties. Mountain silver sage reaches a height of 40-50 cm.
- Brilliant sage is characterized by bright iridescent foliage. The leaf surface is smooth and shiny.
- Stems are erect, evenly covered with leaves without petioles.
- Flowers are collected in arrows at the end of the stem. Their size is up to 1/3 of the length of the stem.
The species is distinguished by an abundance of color palette of petals. There are varieties of white, pink, lilac, purple and blue flowers. The nut fruit ripens by the end of summer.
Unpretentiousness in care, rare watering, combined with the possibility of planting on infertile soils, an abundance of petal colors and a long flowering period, made it in demand among both professionals and ordinary amateur flower growers. The only condition is that in places where sage grows, there should be a lot of light. With proper care, it blooms all summer, ripe fruits appear in September.
This is a southern perennial grown in the middle lane as an annual ornamental plant. The height for this group is small. An adult bush reaches 35-40 cm. Powdery sage is a popular variety for landscaping streets. Lilac-violet flowers create a bright accent in the composition. Therefore, in the summer you can see the plant in the flower beds and lawns of most cities..
Unlike its relatives, it is a stunted species. Sage (the photo of the plant demonstrates this well) reaches a height of 20-30 cm.
- Stems wiry, straight.
- The leaves are elongated, pointed at the ends, approximately the same size along the entire length of the stem.
- The flowers are large, purple, with a purple tint in the sun.
Like all representatives of the species, mealy sage belongs to perennial plants. Cold winters lead to its freezing. Therefore, in the middle lane it is cultivated as an annual blooming all season. Seedlings are grown in greenhouses. Seeds are planted in January-February. By May, a small bush is formed.
The first arrows of flowers appear in early June. Flowering continues until the first frost. Sage loves light soils and direct sunlight. Requires moderate watering.
Powdery sage has been planted since the end of April in open ground throughout Europe and central Russia. This can be seen from the photographs and pictures of the parks of European capitals.
Tall bush up to 90 cm. Easily tolerates frosts down to -10°C. Bred by breeders specifically for the weather and climatic conditions of the middle lane.
Resistance to cold winters made it possible to grow a plant in almost all cities of our country. Experienced flower growers in areas with a more severe climate cover the sage with sawdust or fallen leaves.
- Large shrub with straight stems.
- The leaves are larger at the base.
- Bright blue flower. Collected in inflorescences. The size of the inflorescence reaches 30-35 cm.
- The fruit is a nut that ripens within 1.5 months.
- Powerful, highly branched root system. Therefore, it easily takes root on rocky slopes.
The plant is photophilous and easily tolerates drought. Propagated by seeds. By the middle of summer, seedlings of the first year form a large bush, which blooms for the first time in the second half of August. From next year, sage blooms all summer. It is an excellent honey plant.
For lush flowering, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is necessary.
This is a decorative sage, so it is planted both independently and in compositions. As the figure shows, many gardeners put beehives next to the bushes. Sage honey is famous for its anti-inflammatory properties.
A variety in demand among summer residents, which simultaneously has both decorative and medicinal properties. The bush is compact in width, reaches a height of 80 cm. Voznesensky is resistant to frost, easily tolerates harsh winters. Therefore, it is widely represented throughout the Central Russian Upland.
It has the following structure:
- The stems are straight, tetrahedral, sinewy, stretching upwards. There are few side branches.
- The leaf is fluffy, shaped like a heart.
- The flowers are of a delicate purple color, collected in inflorescences-brushes. Size – about 10-15 cm. A single flower reaches 7-8 mm.
- The root system is powerful, goes deep into the soil. Therefore, it can be planted on the sunny slopes of ravines.
This variety loves sun and light airy soils. Pollinated by insects, excellent honey plant. It blooms from mid-June and continues to delight the eye until early September.
The species combines medicinal and decorative properties. Compared to other varieties, as the images show, Voznesensky sage has more faded and smaller flowers, so it is more often planted in summer cottages.
Medicinal properties are based on the high content of essential oils in leaves and flowers. To preserve its beneficial properties, sage is harvested in the first half of a sunny summer day, when the dew subsides. The material is dried in well-ventilated areas without direct sunlight.
The leaves of the plant are used to prepare decoctions and infusions in the following cases:
- For rinsing the mouth and throat with tonsillitis, stomatitis, gingivitis.
- For inhalation when coughing, because essential oils thin sputum well.
- To raise immunity during the flu epidemic, because raw materials have an anti-inflammatory effect.
- With ulcers and erosions in the stomach. When taken orally, due to the astringent properties, the raw material promotes their healing. Used in the treatment of gastritis and colitis.
It is not recommended to drink infusions for pregnant women and children under 2 years of age. There are no restrictions for local use.
An ornamental shrub up to 70 cm high. A distinctive characteristic is that the flower stalks do not continue the stem, but emerge from the paranasal sinuses. This makes flowering especially plentiful. The variety is adapted to the weather conditions of the middle lane. Hardy, drought tolerant.
Sage Spanish Chia blooms with white or pink erect arrows up to 20 cm in length. The beginning of flowering is June. With proper care, it lasts until September.
A distinctive feature of the variety is a powerful rhizome. Therefore, it can be planted on slopes. Propagated by seeds. This variety is often grown in home gardens.
Breeders distinguish this variety into a separate dwarf group. The bush barely reaches 20 cm in height. The stems are erect, growing in breadth and height. Therefore, outwardly, Marcus resembles a ball. A flowering shrub looks especially impressive. Inflorescences of bright blue or purple color are collected in spikelets. The flowering period lasts all summer.
Marcus is unpretentious, loves well-lit areas and rare watering. It is used by florists and landscape designers. Easy care combined with a beautiful appearance make Markus a stylish addition to any composition.
Dried sage (photo)
Leaves with sage flowers are harvested in summer. Gather raw materials in the meadows or in the garden. A prerequisite is that the day must be sunny. Dry in the attic or in the shed on pallets. Direct sunlight is detrimental to essential oils.
Dried leaves are stored in rag bags at room temperature. Dried sage retains medicinal properties for 2-3 years.