Short description:The broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the veterinary agent Enrostin is due to the active components included in its formulation. Enrofloxacin and colistin sulfate, which in pairs enhance each other’s action, are active against a variety of microorganisms (staphylococci, shigella, streptococci, salmonella, klebsiella, proteus, mycoplasmas, and many others) that cause various diseases in animals. With the introduction of enrofloxacin through the gastrointestinal tract, it quickly and almost completely enters the bloodstream and spreads through the tissues. It is excreted from the body with urine. In contrast, colistin sulfate acts mainly in the intestines, as it is not absorbed into the blood, and is excreted in the faeces. The drug does not affect the development, growth of embryos, does not have a toxic effect on organs, therefore it belongs to moderately dangerous veterinary drugs.
For whom: the drug is prescribed to pigs, poultry, calves, lambs in cases where the causative agent of the intestinal or respiratory disease is sensitive to this drug. Enrostin is effective in enteritis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, streptococcosis, salmonellosis, hemophilia. It is used for infectious processes caused by mixed microflora, and for secondary infections.
Release form : the release form of the drug is a solution for giving animals by mouth. The content of colistin sulfate and enrofloxacin in 1 ml is 103 IU and 100 mg, respectively. Containers for packaging the solution are plastic dark bottles with a capacity of 100 ml. Each bottle is placed in an individual cardboard box and provided with instructions. All commodity units are labeled in accordance with existing requirements, indicating information about the manufacturer and the drug itself, the date of manufacture and the permissible shelf life, etc.
Dosage: The course of treatment with this antimicrobial agent is from 3 to 5 days, and the medicine should be given 1 time per day. The dose depends on the body weight of the animal and for pigs, calves and lambs is 0.3 ml/kg. According to the indications, it can be increased to 0.5 ml / kg. The drug solution should be mixed with drinking water in a ratio of 1:1. For the treatment of birds, you need to take 1 ml of medicine per 1 liter of water and give the bird only this water to drink. If salmonellosis is diagnosed in animals, the course of treatment is increased to 7 days.
Restrictions: the instructions describe in detail all the contraindications for prescribing this drug, a list of drugs with which it cannot be combined is indicated.
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The product is prescribed for poultry, pigeons in those cases when the causative agent of an intestinal or respiratory disease is susceptible to this product. Enrostin is effective in enteritis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, streptococcosis, salmonellosis, hemophilia. It is used for infectious processes caused by hybrid microflora, and for secondary infections.
Dosage for pigeons and other birds .
The direction of treatment with this antimicrobial drug is from 3 to 5 days, while the drug must be given once a day. The therapeutic composition must be mixed with drinking water in a ratio of 1: 1. In order to heal birds (pigeons), it is necessary to take 1 milliliter of medicine and dilute it with 1 liter of water and solder the birds only with this water. If salmonellosis is diagnosed in birds, the direction of cure is increased up to 7 days.
If earlier pigeon breeders treated their pets with improvised means or medicines for chickens, now they can use special preparations for pigeons, which allow them to protect them from various infections, parasites, and even the effects of stress. What medicines should be on hand for the poultry breeder, we will find out further.
Classification of drugs
There are a large number of veterinary drugs for birds, which can be conditionally divided into several groups depending on the spectrum of their action and purpose of use:
- Anthelminths . These are drugs against worms, many of which have a wide spectrum of action. They effectively destroy adult and larval forms of nematodes and cestodes, as well as mature trematodes. Such funds also have a destructive effect on helminth eggs. They are used to deworm pigeons. They are given to birds inside with food or water in the morning and do not require a preliminary diet.
- Medicines for trichomoniasis . They are used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. They are added to drinking water once a day during the morning watering of birds for 7 days before hatching and after the start of feeding the chicks. If the disease affects young birds, then it is better to remove the “yellow plug” with a cotton pad dipped in a solution of the drug. In addition, it must be additionally mixed in drinking water in a double dose.
- Medicines for Newcastle disease (whirlwinds, pseudo-plagues). It is almost impossible to cure such a pathology, therefore, in order to prevent it, vaccines are necessarily used, and 2 times a year:
- in autumn, after molting and before the arrival of cold weather;
- in the winter-spring period, before the start of egg laying (for the central strip, this is September-October and February-March)
Vaccines can be given by nose (intranasal) or taken with drinking water. In the second case, the drinkers will need to be washed thoroughly. The first method is more preferable, since it guarantees dosed administration of the drug to each individual.
Immunity in pigeons is formed 14 days after vaccination and lasts at least 3 months.
Some preparations contain an iodine-containing composition, therefore, a concentration of iodine vapor is created in the poultry house for disinfection and treatment of pulmonary diseases in pigeons. They have a wide range of actions against pathogens of infectious pathologies of various etiologies – bacterial, viral or fungal.
- Probiotics . Many products of this group contain freeze-dried cultures of streptococci, bifidobacteria and filler in different ratios. They are intended for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with a symptom of diarrhea. Their properties are:
- have a synergistic antagonistic effect against opportunistic microorganisms, including E. coli and salmonella;
- stimulate enzymatic processes in the intestine and contribute to the restoration of its normal microflora after taking antibiotics;
- normalize acid balance;
- increase the body’s natural resistance;
- prevent various stressful effects.
- Vitamins and minerals . Such additives are especially useful during molting and egg-laying, in stressful situations and lack of vital elements in the winter-spring season. In addition, they support the bird’s body during the period of illness and antibiotics.
Any drug should be given to pigeons only after consulting a veterinarian and carefully studying the instructions for its use.
Antibiotics for pigeons
A number of complex diseases in birds are treated only by taking antibiotics, which are the following drugs:
- Tetracycline . A broad-spectrum antibiotic that destroys many microbes – mycoplasmas, coccidia, salmonella, pasteurella. It is given to pigeons with food at the rate of 20 mg per 1 kg of live weight twice a day for 5-7 days. Available in the form of powder and tablets, which are crushed to a powder before taking. Since the antibiotic has a strong effect on the bird’s body, it should be given to birds in combination with vitamins A, C, D.
- Oxytetracycline . A broad-spectrum drug that is available in the form of a yellow crystalline powder and tablets. Effectively destroys coccidiosis, salmonellosis, respiratory mycoplasmosis, pasteurellosis. An antibiotic is often prescribed for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. One vial contains 100 thousand IU (100 mg). If administered intramuscularly, then the optimal dose is 10 thousand IU, and if taken with food, at the rate of 6-10 mg per 1 kg of live weight.
- Biomycin . It is used against non-contagious gastrointestinal diseases that can be complicated by opportunistic microflora. The drug is available in the form of a crystalline powder, which has a yellow color and a bitter taste. Recommended for use against salmonellosis, colibacillosis, streptococcosis. As a rule, it is given with food twice a day for 3-7 days at the rate of 40 mg per 1 kg of live weight. The effect of the drug is enhanced when taken together with Streptomycin and Penicillin.
- Streptomycin . It is a complex organic compound that is formed during the cultivation of actinomycetes. The drug has a wide spectrum of action, therefore it is prescribed for such pathologies as:
- contagious runny nose;
- vibrio infection;
- air sacs.
It is administered intramuscularly every 12 hours at the rate of 50 thousand IU per 1 kg of weight. In the same amount, it can be given to the bird inside in the form of homemade capsules. Treatment is carried out for several days until a complete cure.
- Kanamycin . As a rule, it is prescribed in case of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, peritonitis, kidney infection, postoperative complications. Available in the form of tablets for oral administration. Dosages of the drug – 125, 250 and 500 mg. A single dose for adult birds is 5-10 mg. The course of treatment is 5-7 days.
- Erythromycin . An antibiotic produced by a fungus, which includes mineral salts and various organic acids. It is produced in the form of a crystalline white powder, which does not have a specific smell and bitter taste. It actively affects the microflora of the respiratory tract, therefore it is more often prescribed for respiratory diseases, contagious rhinitis, ornithosis, inflammation of the trachea or lungs, but can also be taken for gastrointestinal pathologies. The powder is given to the bird inside along with feed at the rate of 20 mg per 1 kg of live weight.
- Tylosin . It is a waste product of several strains of fungi. Available in two forms – for oral administration with drinking water and for intramuscular injection. The active substances of the drug accumulate in the respiratory system, so it is especially effective against diseases such as:
- contagious runny nose;
- inflammation of the lungs, trachea;
- air sacs.
The drug dissolves in water at the rate of 0.5 g per 1 liter and is given to pigeons for 5-8 days. If it is administered intramuscularly, then it is injected at a dose of 20-30 mg per 1 kg of live weight. The course of treatment, if necessary, is repeated after 5-7 days.
- Bacitracin . Light brown powder of the category of feed substances, per 1 g of which comes 10, 20 or 30 mg of the active substance (bacitracin). It also contains zinc, side products, vitamins and enzymes. Bacitracin is often given to pigeons during a period of intense training, as it increases the body’s resistance to various diseases. It is added to the feed mixture at the rate of 1%. The grain must first be moistened with a small amount of vegetable oil or fish oil.
- Nystatin . The drug has a pronounced effect against fungal diseases, so it is often prescribed for aspergillosis and candidiasis. It is given with feed at the rate of 25-50 mg per 1 kg of live weight. The course of treatment lasts 6-10 days. The antibiotic can also be used for skin lesions that may be caused by aspergillosis. The ointment is prepared on a vaseline basis and is used to treat the affected areas under the wings.
- Tiamulin . It belongs to the antibacterial drugs of the pleuromutilin group. It is quickly absorbed into the digestive system, penetrating almost all organs and tissues. The effect lasts for 18-24 hours. It is prescribed for mycoplasmas, brachispira, streptococci, listeria, leptospira. It is produced in the form of a yellowish powder, which does not dissolve in water, so it is better to give it to pigeons along with food.
- Rhodotium 45% . A drug with a specific odor, produced in the form of a solution or white granules, which may have a slight yellowness. Rodotium is prescribed for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with mycoplasmal infections. It is used orally as the main drug, and the dose depends on the weight of the bird. Young pigeons can be given 0.06-0.11 mg of the drug per 1 kg of live weight. It is diluted in 2 liters of water, and is given both individually and in bulk by adding to a common drinking bowl.
- Triflon (Biopharm) . An oral solution that is a broad-spectrum systemic antibiotic. It contains two active ingredients – enrofloxacin and trimethoprim. The drug has an antimicrobial effect against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, and also has a detrimental effect on mycoplasmas and chlamydia. The solution is perfectly soluble in hard water, acts 1-1.5 hours after ingestion and for 24 hours. Its dose is 0.5-1 ml per 1 liter of drinking water. The course of treatment lasts from 3 to 5 days.
- Enrofloxacin . Refers to quickly absorbed drugs. Quickly relieves the condition of pigeons and has no side effects, therefore it is completely safe. Helps with mycoplasma, brachispira and other ailments that were provoked by a pathogenic organism. The solution is diluted in drinking water and given to pigeons inside. Its dose is 50 ml per 100 liters of water. Treatment lasts 5-6 days.