Do-it-yourself feed extruder from a meat grinder

An extruder is a tool that allows you to process large volumes of cereals, fruits and vegetables, which turn into a complete feed. In a farm, such a device is indispensable, especially when feeding young animals that need feed for normal growth. But the problem is high prices.

Not all farmers can afford to buy such a tool. As a solution, you can make your own feed extruder.

1 How does a feed extruder work?

Before you make an extruder with your own hands, you need to understand the principle of its operation. The principle of operation of the extruder includes the following steps:

  • cereals, vegetables and fruits are loaded into the tank of the device;
  • here they enter the crushing compartment, where high pressure acts on the raw materials (about 60 atmospheres);
  • then the feed is processed with high temperature (in most extruders it reaches 1.5 thousand degrees);
  • the resulting composition is compacted and comes out in the form of a long rod with a thickness of 3 cm;
  • the rod is cut into smaller pieces, after which it is completely ready for use.

Grain extruder operation

The main advantage of the feed processed by such a device is that it is very quickly and fully absorbed by the animal. Under the influence of high temperatures and strong pressure, the structure of the original components breaks down into simpler components, which are individually absorbed much better. According to this principle, all market compound feeds are made.
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1.1 What is a feed extruder made of?

The structure of this device is quite simple. It is based on a frame that connects all units and ensures the stability of their work. A hopper is installed on the frame, into which all the components of the feed are fed, and a mechanism drive.

Next are the dosing auger and the blowing auger, through which small portions of cereals are fed into the receiving chamber. The whole process is organized by an engine with a gearbox. When leaving the device, the finished feed rods are automatically cut off with a special knife or manually.
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2 What is a homemade feed extruder made of?

The main snag when assembling a device at home is the need to purchase most of the parts, since the design here is quite complicated. First of all, you need an accurate drawing.

You can either download it from the Internet (here you can find all imaginable models) or use the ready-made instructions from the factory model. The drawing should convey the dimensions of the components and all the necessary material as accurately as possible. After the drawing is ready and all the important points are thought out, you can proceed to the collection of materials.

Diagram of the extruder device

In order to make your own homemade extruder with low power, you need the following basic materials:

  • First of all, you need an electric motor . The average engine power should be 2.2 kW;
  • you will also need gears from YuMZ . If there are none, you can purchase gears from other tractor transmissions;
  • then we get a gearbox ;
  • a hydraulic cylinder is also needed , or rather, only a rod from it. The stem diameter must be at least 5 cm;
  • wire or spring with a section diameter of 0.8 cm;
  • welding tool, lathe and other necessary tools.

2.1 Assembling a homemade extruder

First of all, we begin to make a screw for the device. It consists of a cylinder and a body. To make the cylinder, gears from the tractor transmission are used. They are tightly welded together. If standard gears were used, then the diameter of the resulting part should be somewhere around 62 mm.

Next we work with the body. The basis for it will be, prepared earlier, the rod from the hydraulic cylinder. A wire is wound around the stem in the form of a spiral (if there is a sufficiently long spring corresponding to the diameter, you can use it). The wire on the rod must be placed so that the distance between the turns of the spiral gradually decreases towards the end of the part. The initial clearance is 25 mm, after which there is a gradual decrease to 20 mm.

As soon as the wire (spring) is properly fixed, we grab it with a welding machine. Welding must be very strong, as the part will succumb to severe stress. Next, the auger is carefully inspected for irregularities and extra protrusions.

All identified marriage is erased with a file or grinder. The screw can also be machined on a lathe, if available. The part will be of better quality, and the work will be much less. In addition, the channels will be much deeper, which will simplify the supply of grain.

Homemade screw for extruder

How to make an auger case? As this component, any piece of pipe suitable in diameter is suitable. Inside it fits the screw cylinder. It must be connected to the extruder head and the gearbox that drives the screw. To do this, we grind two bushings on a lathe. After we connect all the parts. At the junction between the gearbox and the screw shaft, it is necessary to additionally install a bearing.

Further, a special die and several tubes are welded to the head of the device. Now the main preparations are over and you can proceed to the direct assembly of the mechanism.

First of all, you need to make a solid frame on which the device will be installed. There are no specific instructions here. Its design depends on the features of a homemade extruder. The main requirements for the frame are stability, stability and strength. The first two points can be achieved by making a wider base, which, after assembly, is screwed to the floor with bolts with a large diameter. You can assemble the frame from the corners welded together.

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We install an engine and a gearbox with an auger and a head welded to it on the frame. The transmission of torque to the gearbox will be carried out by a belt. It connects the starting mechanism, gearbox and electric motor.

We fix the grain hopper on the installed auger. Any metal container with a hole in the bottom can act as this part. In the absence of such, an ordinary iron bucket will do. The hopper is fixed so that the grain easily passes into the auger, where it is pushed and pressed. The grain reaches its peak of pressing in the spinneret, which gives out ready-made feed. The thickness of the resulting compound feed rod will depend on the diameter of the die.

We install the frame in the selected part of the room, after which we weld all parts of the device. The do-it-yourself extruder is ready.
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2.2 Last checks and first run

The resulting extruder is a fairly powerful electrical device, which, before direct work, needs a thorough check of all components and assemblies. For security purposes, the following verification plan must be followed:

Starting the extruder with grain

  1. The first point is to re-check the reliability of all seams and connections . If individual components are connected with bolts, tighten them as much as possible.
  2. The next step is to check the evenness of the surface on which the device is installed.
  3. The next step is to start the mechanism. For some time, the mechanism should idle. This will warm it up before work. To check if the extruder has warmed up enough, you can run flour into it. You can determine the readiness of the device for operation by the form of processed raw materials.
  4. If all the preparatory processes went well, you can proceed to the check with grain . Cereals must be fed into the bunker gradually and steadily. Feed interruptions lead to negative idle, which damages the machine. But, and an excess of raw materials will lead to work “through force”, which can damage the mechanisms.
  5. The finished product should be constantly twisted. This will remove the gaps in the die and increase the density of the feed.
  6. In no case should you abruptly stop the device after active work. If the required amount of grain has already been processed, add flour or sunflower seed waste to the hopper again. During processing, such material collects cereal oils released during processing and unprocessed residues that contaminate the mechanisms.
  7. The speed of the machine is gradually reduced until it cools down. After stopping, it takes some more time for the machine to cool down, otherwise there is a risk of getting burned by the hot extruder mechanisms.

2.3 The work of a homemade grain extruder (video)

An easy-to-use feed extruder makes it possible to independently produce compound feed for animals. This device is considered an indispensable assistant both in a large-scale agricultural sector and in a small farm for growing animals and birds. In specialized stores, such equipment costs decent money. To save money, the unit can be assembled with your own hands, the drawings and recommendations of specialists will serve as an auxiliary informant in this matter.

What it is

An extruder is used to process grain crops into compound feed, which is much easier to digest in the stomach of animals. Processing is carried out using a press under a pressure of 60 atmospheres and at high temperature. The result is a product that is shaped like corn sticks 20-30 mm, but with a dense structure.

Feed preparation devices exist with a different power indicator, the volume of the outgoing product depends on it. For a small farm, a device with a capacity of 25-45 kg / h is perfect – the price of such a device starts at 47 thousand rubles. But a large farm will require more powerful models capable of producing up to 1.5 tons per hour and they cost from 160 thousand rubles.

Extruder device

Due to high prices, equipment for processing products into compound feed, even second-hand, is available to a narrow circle of consumers. But if you make a feed extruder with your own hands, you can save a lot. Only in this case, you need to study in detail the device of the unit, the principle of operation, and also have all the necessary spare parts available.

Diagram of a large extruder

The design of the device includes the following elements:

  • frame – serves as the basis, all details are fixed on it;
  • drive unit;
  • belt;
  • loading capacity;
  • cuff;
  • dosing screw with a separate drive;
  • reducer;
  • receiving tank;
  • motor;
  • blowing screw conveyor;
  • Control block;
  • carved blade;
  • washer;
  • adjustment key.

Operating principle

In a homemade extruder, the main function is performed by the pressing mechanism. The element includes an injection screw assembly mounted in a cylinder. The blade block gives the product the shape of oblong sticks.

The functions of the electrical appliance are not limited to pressing the feed. With its help, you can grind grain, carry out heat treatment and disinfection of feed, mix different components into a single mass.

The design of the injection screw includes:

  • outer part;
  • internal;
  • heating washers;
  • outgoing screw.

Each assembly is mounted on a stud with a left-hand threaded part and covered with a metal case. Thanks to the keys, the revolutions come from the main shaft to the combined auger. All components are firmly fixed on the frame.

Detailed design of the extruder (download)

The body element is equipped with a hole, a receiving part is mounted to it. The inner area is equipped with longitudinal grooves, due to which all feed components are mixed along the longitudinal side of the axis.

A granule regulator is installed on the outlet part, its design includes:

  • matrix block;
  • exit body;
  • a blade pressed by a spring element to the die block.

The revolutions of the shaft with the blade are carried out by means of an occasion. You can monitor the temperature regime using a thermocouple mounted on the frame. The grain extruder operates from electrical voltage. But there are already modifications that work on fuel.

We make a do-it-yourself feed extrude

If you have the necessary material, parts and tools, you can make an extruder with your own hands. Let’s consider how to get a small performance model.

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This will require:

  • electric motor with a power of 2.2 kW at 3,000 rpm;
  • gears from a tractor box – parts from YuMZ will serve as an excellent option;
  • spring 8 mm;
  • rod with a cross section of 5 cm;
  • welding equipment.

Step-by-step work on the manufacture of a feed extruder with your own hands:

  1. To obtain a cylinder, you will need to weld the tractor gears together. As a result, a spare part with a section of 625 mm should come out. Next, a spring with a diameter of 8 mm is mounted on the hydraulic rod. Weld all the details, with an uneven seam, treat the area with a grinder.
  2. Using turning equipment, machine 2 axle boxes, which will be intended for the auger and gearbox. Weld the auger, shaft member and bushings into one piece, remembering to insert the bearing between the last pieces.

Blanks in the form of box

  1. The head of the equipment is mounted on the screw, it will act as a regulator of the die, to which the nozzles are welded.

Auger workpiece

  1. The auger is covered with a housing, all parts are assembled and fixed to the frame, an electric motor, belts and a starting part are also mounted. A loading tank is installed on top.

In general terms, a home-made extruder in terms of external and functional characteristics is similar to a household electric meat grinder.

VIDEO: Making a screw granulator with your own hands (part 1)

How to apply a homemade design

The self-assembled grain granulator before large-scale production needs preliminary testing and verification work. Equipment must be tested in a safe environment

Homemade extruder for the production of animal feed

  1. The first thing to check is the quality of all connections, as well as fasteners and the maximum level of lifting to the stop.
  2. Then the device is fixed on a flat, stable surface. If the coating is loose, the appliance may not function properly.
  3. Connect to a power source, start up and leave for a few minutes to fully warm up the system. To prevent the elements from rotating in vain, it is possible to pass a light product through the mechanism in the form of flour or cake from sunflower seeds for verification. By the correctness of the form, it is determined whether the device has warmed up enough.

When the shape of the “sausage” becomes even and dense, then the unit is ready to work with grain

  1. After the compound feed comes out in the desired shape, you can fill in the grain product. The supply of grain must be regular without stopping, the mechanism must not be allowed to function idle. You should also fill in the raw materials in uniform portions so as not to load the system and not create a congestion.
  2. At the outlet, you need to adjust the feed fraction by periodically tightening the bolt and reducing the opening of the spinneret plate.
  3. At the end of the production process, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the internal components from product residues. To do this, it is not required to disassemble the device, it is enough to fill the shell from the seeds into the equipment. This raw material is able to collect grain product particles well due to the oils it contains.
  4. Reduce the level of rotation to gradually cool the components of the mechanism. If you need to disassemble the device, you should wear heat-protective gloves, there is a risk of getting burned.

A do-it-yourself device is capable of producing up to 40 kg / h of feed. The level of performance depends entirely on the degree of power of the motor, which is in the design of the equipment. For personal use, such processing efficiency will be enough.

Mechanized processing of raw materials allows you to fully provide livestock with mixed fodder, while reducing the cost of buying factory mixed fodder. In the process of preparing feed pellets, you can use a variety of grain products with additives, enriching the diet with various world and macro elements, which are so lacking in conventional feed.

VIDEO: Making a screw granulator with your own hands (part 2)

The life of a farmer is full of worries, many people know about it. Hard work can be facilitated with the help of modern technology or machine tools. The feed extruder is designed to prepare pet food of different quality and in different quantities. But not everyone can buy it for the household because of the significant cost. A do-it-yourself feed extruder will significantly reduce costs by getting an excellent household helper.

Is it possible to make such a unit with your own hands? Let’s try to figure it out.

What is an extruder for?

With the help of such a unit, it is possible to process grain into animal feed with high digestibility. Any grain, even not the first freshness, can be processed in an extruder under pressure (no more than 60 atmospheres) and exposure to high temperatures (up to 1600 degrees). At the output, products are obtained that resemble sticks or flagella with a diameter of about 3 centimeters . Power can be different , depending on the desired amount of final product. A small farm will have enough productivity of 20-40 kg / h, and for large farms – a device capable of processing 1-1.5 tons / h.

Of course, you can cook food with your own hands, steam or boil the grain, adding various components to it. But its quality will be very different, and the animals will need more time to digest it. You need to spend a lot of time, production will give a lot of waste. All these problems can be avoided by using a feed extruder.

Buying such a device, even one that has been in use, is far from possible for everyone because of the considerable cost. Many connect fantasy, ingenuity, their own skillful hands – and creativity begins. Some craftsmen manage to assemble good samples of a household extruder with their own hands. Each owner can try to make it, the main thing is to get acquainted with the device and not be afraid to experiment .

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How the unit is arranged

The extruder is made up of the following elements:

  • frame base to which the entire installation is attached;
  • drive;
  • bunker for loading grain;
  • dosing screw and drive to it;
  • injection screw;
  • cylinder;
  • receiving chamber;
  • cutting knife;
  • control center/controller;
  • engine;
  • reducer;
  • cuffs;
  • belt;
  • washers;
  • nuts;
  • adjusting key.

The main work is performed by the pressing unit. It is assembled from a blowing screw, which is inserted into the collection cylinder. Using a matrix with a cutting knife, the resulting mass takes on the form of sticks or flagella.

The injection screw consists of three stages:

  • entrance part;
  • middle part;
  • output auger;
  • heating washers.

All components are mounted on a left-hand threaded stud. The part is covered with a metal case. The keys transmit rotation from the main shaft to the composite auger. The entire structure is attached to the supporting frame using powerful bolts. The case has a window with an attached tray.

Inside the body itself there are several longitudinal grooves that move the components along the axis of the screw. A granule adjuster is located near the exit. It consists of:

  • nasal body;
  • a matrix (disk) that regulates the process with a handle;
  • roller and knife, which are pressed against the matrix by a spring.

Rotation of the shaft with a knife – through a leash with fingers. Finished extrudates exit through the nose housing and orifice adjustment disc. The disk is fixed in one position with a bolt; when the position changes, the temperature and pressure level in the apparatus will change. A thermocouple placed on the body allows you to monitor the temperature.

Powered by the mains, but there are new models that run on liquid fuel. Warming up is gradual . At the first stage, while the extruder is warming up, cake or flour is loaded into it. Grain is served only when the system is well heated, it breaks and transforms into sticks only at high temperatures and strong pressure.

Can you make your own extruder?

You can do a lot of useful things with your own hands, having a set of tools and the necessary details on the farm. Many drawings can be found on the Internet or by reading the instructions to the factory machines. In self-creation of the unit, you can not do without:

  • electric motor (for example, 2.2 kW, 300 rpm);
  • gears from the tractor box;
  • rod from the hydraulic cylinder (diameter 50 mm);
  • wire (8 mm) or springs;
  • turning and welding machines.

After preparing the tools and blanks, they proceed directly to the manufacturing process of the unit

  1. To obtain a screw cylinder, two gears are welded together. It turns out a part with a diameter of 62.5 mm.
  2. To make an auger, a wire is wound onto the hydraulic cylinder rod into three balls, each ball must be narrower than the previous one. Wind the way you feel comfortable. The presence of a spring greatly simplifies the task.
  3. All components should be scalded. If the seam is uneven, you need to trim using a grinder.
  4. Turn a couple of axle boxes on a lathe (gear shaft and auger).
  5. By welding, connect the axle boxes, the shaft and the auger in one piece, without passing the thrust bearing between them.
  6. An experienced turner can help you make quality parts in a short time.
  7. The extruder head is fixed on the screw. Its adjustment will be carried out using a die to which pipes are welded.
  8. The auger is hidden in a steel case, it is made separately.
  9. Next, proceed to the assembly of the entire unit. The engine is fixed on the frame, it is connected by belts to the starting part and the extruder. Above is a bunker for loading grain. Next is the loading part, into which the grain enters after passing through the bunker before passing into the three-stage system of supply, gap, press.
  10. The spinneret should compress the grain mass to the maximum and dispense the resulting product into the nasal dispenser.

The DIY feed extruder can work non-stop for a long time without consuming too much electricity. The principle of operation resembles an ordinary meat grinder, only in the end you can get not minced meat, but harder sticks. The size of the finished compound feed depends on how large the spinnerets are.

A few helpful tips

The home-made apparatus must be carefully checked and tested before use.

  • First you need to check the reliability of all connections and fasteners.
  • The unit must be installed on a flat surface, any drops will disrupt the operation of the extruder.
  • Connect to the mains and allow the system to warm up. At this time, you can pass a small amount of flour or sunflower cake through the press, observing the shape of the outgoing mass – this way you can understand whether the system has warmed up enough.
  • Next is the supply of grain. It must be constant in order to exclude idling of the apparatus. Grain should be filled without excess, otherwise jams may occur.
  • At the outlet, the fraction of the outgoing product is regulated by gradually tightening the bolt and reducing the gap of the spinneret.
  • After processing is completed, the inside of the mechanism should be cleaned. Use the same flour or cake for this purpose – they will absorb the remaining grain and oil.
  • To cool the mechanism faster, clean at minimum speed. Disassembly should be carried out only with gloves to prevent burns.

The do-it-yourself extruder can process no more than 40 kg of grain per hour. For a small farm, this is enough. Food prepared by mechanical processing – complete nutrition for pets, reducing the cost of buying food and time for their preparation.

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